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civilians Boston massacre

The Boston Massacre is considered by many historians to be the first battle of the Revolutionary War.  The fatal incident happened on March 5 of 1770.  The massacre resulted in the death of five colonists.  British troops in the Massachusetts Bay Colony were there to stop demonstrations against the Townshend Acts and keep order, but instead they provoked outrage.  The British soldiers and citizens brawled in streets and fought in bars.  “The citizens viewed the British soldiers as potential oppressors, competitors for jobs, and a treat to social mores” (Mahin 1).  A defiant anti-British fever was lingering among the townspeople.
There are three major things that led to the Boston Massacre: First was the growing mistrust among the British soldiers and Americans.  There were a number of other incidents were the British clashed with the patriots and their supporters.  Individual soldiers were beaten on street corners and soldiers abused unarmed civilians.  In all the Americans in Boston made it clear that the British soldiers were unwanted.
The second reason is somewhat odd.  The removal of two out of four regiments meant there were to inadequate amounts of soldiers to keep the peace.  There were enough on the other hand to remind the patriots of the great British military.
The last reason would be the revolt of the Townshend Acts.  The patriots and Americans did not agree and strife with the British soldiers over it.  The Act built tension between the two. (Griswold 23)
On March 5, 1770 the dreadful day came.  A mob of people went in front of the Customs Office in Boston Massachusetts and started to throw stuff and give insults at the soldiers. As a result to this so-called harassment the soldiers fired on the crowd.  The first to die was a black man named Crispus Attucks.  He was a native of Frainghan, Massachusetts.  He escaped from slavery in 1750 and had become a sailor. Crispus Attucks is considered the first martyr of the American Independence (Mahin 1).  The four others who died were Samuel gray, a rope maker; James Caldwell, a sailor; Samuel Maverick, a seventeen year old apprentice and Patrick Carr, a leather worker and Irish immigrant.  All in which were unarmed and brutally murdered. The soldiers killed three, mortally wounded two others, and wounded six.  How much harassment could they have done to deserve to be shot?  The most the protesters should have gotten is to be arrested.
To please the crowds Governor Hutchinson arrested the soldiers and promised the people that there would be a trial.  John Adams and Josiah Quincy took the defense of the soldiers and Preston. The soldiers went to trial in September and they and captain Preston pleaded innocent.  The eight men and Preston were tried separately and only two were found guilty.  The others were acquitted while the two found guilty were branded on the hand and released, an easy penalty for murder.  Preston was found innocent. Adams was successful in proving the soldiers fired in self-defense.  
The soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre were proven innocent.  “Adam proved that the soldiers fired in self-defense” (no author 10).
I believe the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre and/or the captain Tomas Preston should have been convicted Guilty.
The five deaths were unjustified and unneeded. All of the five men were unarmed at the time of the shootings.  If someone throws an apple at you, you don’t shoot him or her.  In a today’s court system I believe them British soldiers would have been guilty and been convicted with murder. “Adams said, the killing were justified and blamed the violence of the immigrant Patrick Carr and Crispus Attucks” (Mahin 1).  So if Adams believes the death of the five men were blamed on them two how come they weren’t just arrested and how come the others were shot.   “Adams told the jury that the illegal assembly was guilty of every crime a mob might commit” (Mahim 1).  I don’t think the mob crimes of throwing snowballs and other stuff deserve the death penalty.  The five men were shot and murdered by the soldiers.
I feel the soldiers were looking for a fight. The soldiers provoked the citizen’s countless ... more

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International charter of human

International Declaration of Human Rights and Freedoms
History
After the war crimes committed by the Germans in the holocaust that occurred during World War II, the United nations decided to create  a document guaranteeing respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all people, regardless of race, sex, language, or religion. This document was called The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The declaration was voted in on December 10, 1948, which is now celebrated each year as Human Rights Day.  The Declaration says that all human beings are born free and equal and establishes basic rights for all people and rules for the actions of  governments in many areas pertaining to those rights. For example, it says that all people have the right to liberty, religious and political freedom, education, and economic well-being. It bans torture and states that all people have the right to participate in their governments.
The declaration is not a law, unfortunately, and in some cases has had little  actual effect on the member countries of the UN. Governments with poor human rights records, such as China, do not agree with the UNs attempts to promote human rights, saying that such actions interfere with their internal affairs.
The UN has a Commission on Human Rights. Its job is to monitor abuses of the declaration in member countries, hold international meetings on human rights issues and handle complaints about violations to the basic human rights.  
It was in 1993 that  the General Assembly created the position of High Commissioner for Human Rights. The commissioner job is to oversee all of the UNs human rights programs, work to prevent human rights violations, and investigate human rights abuses. It is also in the commissioners power to publicize abuses to human rights taking place in any country. However most publicity about abuses to human rights does not come from the UN but from  rival countries or non-governmental groups like Amnesty International
The UN has also written four international treaties on human rights. These treaties do have the force of law but are very hard to enforce. The treaties deal only with the problems of genocide, racial discrimination, civil and  political rights, and economic and social rights. These four treaties have only been signed by about half of the countries of the world. Notably the United States has only signed the treaty concerning genocide. Other countries have also refused to sign the conventions because of  concerns about the specific terms of the conventions and the loss of authority that such treaties imply.
Recent Human Rights Activities
The UNs most well known recent activities dealing with human rights are the two International Criminal Tribunals held to bring to justice those responsible for the horrible acts of violence committed during the  recent civil wars in the former countries of Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The tribunal for crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia was established by the UNs Security Council in 1993. The council started the Rwanda tribunal in 1994. They are the first  international war crimes trials since the Nrnberg Trials for Nazi war criminals  that followed World War II. Although the tribunals were established by the Security Council, they operated independently of the UN. The trials depend on contributions from countries to keep operating and were often hampered by financial shortages. Another  more serious problem was the inability to arrest suspects in countries that do not recognize the treaties brought in by the UN as valid. The Yugoslav tribunal indicted 75 people for war crimes and genocide, including the top military and political leaders of the Serb forces in Bosnia and a high officer in the Croatian militia in Bosnia but neither Serbia nor the Bosnian Serb forces have turned over suspects. The international military forces in Bosnia have also refused to arrest them. The president of Croatia actually gave an indicted officer a promotion and medals. In 1997 the tribunal had only a handful of low-ranking suspects to actually bring to trial.
Impact
Many critics of the UN claim that the International Declaration Of Human rights has had very little real impact on infringements to any of the rights outlined in it since it does not carry the force of ... more

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