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china s economic modernization Five Questions For Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

The most dedicated leader of the revolution, and future leader of the Bolshevik Party in Russia, was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. He was born in 1870 in Simbirsk, Russia, a small town on the Volga River, to a family of hereditary nobles that were not wealt
but quite comfortable. Vladimir Ulyanov, who would later change his name to Lenin, was the third of seven children. His oldest brother, Aleksandr, was hanged in May of 1887 for having joined in a plot to kill Czar Alexander III. The czar signed a warra
to have the five student conspirators executed. A year earlier, Vladimirs father had died. Because of these cicumstances Vladimir experienced extreme grief. He died of a stroke in January of 1924 at his villa outside Moscow. I chose Vladimir Lenin to
ite about because I felt that I didnt truly understand what part he played in the Bolshevik takeover of Russia. In fact, I didnt even understand what role he played in Russia, though I did know that he was associated with communism in some way.
At the University of Kazan, where Lenin majored in law, Lenin was expelled after only three months for taking part in a student protest meeting. He went on to work in a law office in St. Petersburg, where he joined the Social Democratic Party.
In late February 1917 riots broke out in Saint Petersburg. A group of individuals assumed formal governmental powers and declared itself the Provincial Government of Russia on March 1. Lenin took the reins of the Bolshevik Party shortly after the Bolsh
ik Revolution which overthrew this Provincial government. Lenin instantly created to pieces of legislation. One of them withdrew Russia from World War I. The other one nationalized personal property. From 1918 to 1921 Russia was torn by a civil war betw
n the White armies and the Red Army of the Soviet government. In the summer of 1918 the Soviet government, under Lenins leadership, launched the Red Terror, a brutal campaign aimed at eliminating political opponents among the civilian population. The g
ernment also introduced a series of economic policies in an effort to put socialist principles into practice and to respond to Russias pressing economic needs. However, these policies only weakened economic output.Widespread strikes and uprisings broke
ut in cities and rural areas, and by early 1921 mass unrest was threatening the stability of the Soviet government.

What was your affect on history?

Even though my ideas have been abandoned in a great majority of the worlds nations, I feel in some small way that I have contributed to history. Whether that contribution was positive or negative is left for future generations to decide. My achievemen
lies in the drive of my life, communism. It has been the one idea that has kept me going through the few years that I have inhabited this planet, the idea of a classless society. However the complete picture of my design did not take off until after I h
died, I am the un-denied leader of communism, taking it from mere theory into workable practice.
By pressing communist philosophies into the government I effectively removed the restraints to modernization and industrialization imposed by the former monarchy. (McNeal 68). Thus, I effectively changed the course of Russian history. However even the
lshevik party seemed to drift away from my control during my lifetime. Several years after my death a member of the Bolshevik party remarked that, Had Vladimir lived very much longer he most likely would have landed in jail (McNeal 68). To tell you th
truth, I believe it. However, even though the party changed drastically from its conception the principle, that the party was to be an elite force meant to guide the people, still remained dominant. And along with that is the belief that those who rejec
the current party line are class enemies. Outside the party there can only be enemies; within, only true believers.
But overall the foundation of the Bolshevik party was laid by myself, and I can be attributed with most of its earlier success. I was very good at manipulating the public while still following their will. One of the reasons why this was possible was b
ause of communisms flexibility. ... more

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Privatization

Privatization
What is Privatization?
Privatization is the process of transferring productive operations and assets from the public sector to the private sector. Broadly defined in this fashion, privatization is much more than selling an enterprise to the highest bidder, as it includes contracting out, leasing, private sector financing of infrastructure projects, liquidation, mass privatization, etc. My testimony will argue that there is no single best approach to privatization; the appropriate privatization path depends on the goals that the government is seeking to attain, the individual circumstances facing the enterprise and the economic and political context of the country.
It should be noted that privatization is fundamentally a political process as well as a commercial and economic process. Privatization changes the distribution of power within a society, as it diminishes control of the economy by the state and government- appointed managers. Workers often feel threatened by the potential changes inherent in privatization, although employees frequently benefit from the process. As a result, public support is a major consideration in any privatization program and many of the choices made in designing and implementing transactions reflect the need for such support. Two consequences flow from this factor. 1) choices of approaches are sometimes altered due to political considerations, meaning that equity must be promoted in the privatization strategy, and 2) program implementation must be objective and fair to avoid adverse publicity.
What are the goals of privatization?
Many goals are often pursued through privatization programs. These goals often fall along two principal dimensions: 1) broad social or macro economic goals, and 2) enterprise specific or macro economic goals.
Macro economic goals are numerous. Fundamentally, privatization is advocated as a means to reduce the governments role in the economy, partly as a philosophical matter (as in the UK) but principally because governments have performed badly in that role. Many countries can attribute substantial portions of their external debt to liabilities of state-owned enterprises and significant portions of government budgets are devoted to paying subsidies or otherwise assisting loss-making State-owned enterprises. Government's objectives in these situations are often simply to extricate themselves from these financial commitments, and focus scarce resources instead on education, infrastructure, and social welfare.
A second macro economic goal of privatization is to promote the development of the private sector by leveling the playing field and ending subsidized competition from state-owned enterprises. There is a danger in some countries that emerging private businesses face unfair competition from state enterprises that have access to credit and other inputs at below market rates and better access to government distribution channels. In order to give the private sector a fair opportunity to compete and thrive, state-owned enterprises are privatized.
A third goal of privatization's to obtain the sales proceeds and use them to finance shortfalls in the government's budget or retire some of the public sector debt. While it is widely recognized that focusing on sales proceeds may be shortsighted and ignore other important outcomes of privatization, it is a fact that many governments are strongly influenced by the availability of funds from privatization.
A fourth goal is to broaden share ownership so that the public has mechanisms for saving money and participating in the economies of their countries.
The macro economic goals of privatization focus mostly on the potential improvements that private sector operators will bring to an enterprise to improve this performance and increase chances of survival. These goals recognize the need to improve enterprise efficiency by introducing new technology and financing sources, improving the quality of the product, enhancing marketing-especially in the international market, providing information systems, and generally improving the management of the enterprise. Obviously successful changes of this nature, when applied to a number of individual enterprises, will have significant macro economic implications as well.
The final goals of privatization is to note that in most countries privatization is but one part of a broad program of structural reform. This is most evident former Communist country, where privatization is an element of the process of developing a market economy and its associated financial institutions. In such cases, the privatization program designed should take into account the broader economic goals that are being pursued, as well as the goals specific to the enterprise.
What types of privatization ... more

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  • H: Five Questions For Vladimir Lenin H: Five Questions For Vladimir Lenin Five Questions For Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin The most dedicated leader of the revolution, and future leader of the Bolshevik Party in Russia, was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. He was born in 1870 in Simbirsk, Russia, a small town on the Volga River, to a family of hereditary nobles that were not wealt but quite comfortable. Vladimir Ulyanov, who would later change his name to Lenin, was the third of seven children. His oldest brother, Aleksandr, was hanged in May of 1887 for having joined ...
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