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cemetery ridge Louisa May Alcott

Louisa May Alcott was born in Germantown, PA, on Nov. 29, 1832, and she was the second daughter of Abigail May and Amos Bronson Alcott. She had an older sister Anna and two younger sisters Elizabeth and May.  The family moved to Boston, MA in 1834, where her father set up an experimental school that failed because of the lack of students. Since the Alcotts were relatively poor, Ralph Waldo Emerson financially supported them while they moved to Concord, MA. Amos and Abigail were both progressive educators and part of the Transcendental Movement in America so they instructed Louisa and her three sisters in this progressive educational style. Her father advised Louisa to keep a journal. She began this journal at a very young age and kept with it until her last days on earth. The journal was open to inspection by her father and mother. Mrs. Alcott would often write little notes to her daughter. Louisa included poetry and letters in her entries, as well as comments to her sisters and mother.  This journal helped lead her into her literary career.
Louisa wrote poems, novels, and short stories most of which were published. Some of her early work was written under the pen name, Flora Fairchild.  Her most well known work was Little Women, which was based on her own life. "Marmee" is her mother, "Meg" is her sister Anna, "Jo" is Louisa herself, "Beth" is her younger sister Elizabeth, and "Amy" is her youngest sister May. In real life the sisters would act out elaborate scenes in an old barn or by the stream just like they did in Little Women.
Louisa May Alcott's career was not restricted to writing. Beginning in her late teens, she worked as a teacher for several years and off-and-on as a seamstress. In 1867, Louisa became the editor of Merry's Museum, a children's magazine. Louisa Alcott also was an avid social reformer. Abolition, temperance, and educational reform were among her chosen causes. But being a feminist at heart, she especially fought for women's rights, including suffrage. In fact, she was the first woman to register to vote in Concord.
Then, in 1857, Louisa's younger sister Elizabeth became ill. This is shown in Little Women with the sickness of "Beth." Elizabeth lived for 8 years and then her life came to a close, but the tragic death of her sister from complications of scarlet fever brought Louisa back home to support her family emotionally and financially.  When the war broke out, Louisa volunteered in the hospitals as a helping nurse in Washington, D.C.  During her time in the wards, she kept a journal and often wrote letters home. These letters and journal entries were later published and called "Hospital Sketches." However, she contracted typhoid fever and was treated  with calomel, which contains mercury. The treatment cured her of typhoid, but the mercury would eventually kill her with heavy metal poisoning.  In 1877 her mother's illness grew worse and she, too, was feeling ill.  
Then, Louisa's younger sister May, died in 1879. In August of 1886, Alcott was attacked with rheumatism and vertigo. She closes her journal in 1886. Her father's illness was also quickly getting worse, but with the little strength she had, she took care of him every few days. In early March, Mr. Alcott failed rapidly. At 3:30, March 6, 1888, Miss Alcott passed away. Her father passed away just 2 days before she did.  She is buried on "Authors' Ridge" in Concord's Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, with her family.
Louisa May Alcott lived a long, prosperous life.  She was not only an excellent writer, but also an active abolitionist, suffragist, and feminist.  



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General sir arthur currie

LIEUTENANT--GENERAL SIR ARTHUR CURRIE  (A brief account of the
battle of Passchendaele)

Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Currie was the most capable soldier that Canada has produced.  Certainly, he did not look like the great soldier he had become.  A very tall man, at six-foot-four, he was also somewhat overweight.  Through his successes as the Commander of the Canadian Corps, he knew how to delegate authority and stand by the decisions of his subordinates.
Currie, however, was not a professional soldier.  He was born in Strathroy, Ontario, on December 5, 1875 and raised, he had moved to Canadas west coast in his late teens.  As an adult, he movedto Victoria, British Columbia, he had become a schoolteacher, and insurance salesman, and, a real-estate speculator, an occupation that
made him one of Victorias leading citizens.  Like all goodCanadian businessmen at the time, he joined the Canadian Militia.  In 1897, he had enlisted as a lowly gunner in the 5th Regiment, Canadian Garrison Artillery; by 1909, he was the lieutenant-colonelcommanding the regiment.  In late 1913, Currie accepted the challenge of raising and
training an infantry unit, the 50th Regiment, Gordon Highlanders of Canada.
When the war broke out in August 1914, the highly regarded Currie was commanded of an infantry brigade.  Currie fought with exceptional composure at Ypres in 1915 where his 2nd Brigade made a remarkable stand against the poison gas.  Having impressed his superiors, Currie was promoted to command the crack 1st Canadian
Division.  He led the Red Patch at Mount Sorrel, through the horror of the Somme in 1916 and at Vimy Ridge, Arleux, and Fresnoy in the spring of 1917. In June, Currie had been knighted and named commander of the Canadian Corps, now four divisions strong.  
One of Curries most impressive and important achievements had come during the winter or 1919-17, while he was still a divisional commander.  By analyzing the fighting he had witnessed on the Western Front, Currie had drawn up what proved to be a blueprint for tactical success.  In a paper, Currie synthesized the best of British and French concepts, and with many of his own beliefs based on personal experience.  Under Sir Arthur Currie, the Canadian Corps emerged as an outstanding formation on the Western Front.  No force--British, Australian, French, American, of German--could match its marvelous, record, a series of successes without a single setback, by the end of the war.  
Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Curries was not pleased at the prospect of going to Passchendaele.  Currie, like many Canadian soldiers, had grim memories of the Ypres salient, and grim memories to he Ypres salient, and admitted that his experience in the salient in 1915 and in 1916 were such that I never wanted to see the place again. Unfortunately, on 3 October, Currie was warned that the Corps might be sent north, to take part in the offensive in Flanders.  Currie could make no sense of Passchendaele, and he was furious.  Passchendaele! he raged in front of his staff.  Whats the good of it? Let the Germans have it--keep it--rot in it!  Rot in the mud!  Theres a  mistake somewhere.  it must be a mistake!  It isnt worth a drop of blood.  Although Currie was not at all happy that the Canadians had been told to take Passchendaele.  One of Curries first moves was to assign intelligence officers to the various headquarters with which the Canadian Corps would be associated:  Second Army, II Anzac Corps, which was responsible for the sector the Canadians would be taking over, and its front-line divisions, the New Zealand and 3rd Australian.  These officers, and the general staff were to acquire
early and thorough information as regards to details of German defenses and dispositions, and especially for the purpose of arranging the daily programme of bombardment.  These preparations was a sparkling success.  On the other hand, at the Canadian Corps headquarters, planning for the attach was well under way.  By 16 October, just three days after receiving his orders, General Currie had completed his preliminary plans, which he described in a letter to the Second Armys Sir Herbert Plumer. The operation will be carried out in three stages, the objective of each stage being...
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