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cellular phone market history of intel




The microprocessor has changed our lives in so many ways that it is difficult to recall how different things were before its invention.  During the 1960’s, computers filled many rooms.  Their expensive processing power was available only to a few government labs, research universities, and large corporations.  Intel was founded on July 18,1968 by engineers, Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, Andrew Grove, and Arthur Rock.  Rock became Chairman, Moore was President, Noyce was Executive Vice President in charge of product development and worked with Moore on long range planning, and Grove headed manufacturing.  The purpose of the new company was to design and manufacture very complex silicon chips using large-scale integration (LSI) technology.  Moore and Grove’s vision was to make Intel the leader in developing even more powerful microprocessors and to make Intel-designed chips the industry standard in powering personal computers.  Moore and Noyce wanted to seek Intel because they wanted to regain the satisfaction of research and development in a small growing company.  Although the production of memory chips was starting to become a commodity business in the late 1960’s, Moore and Noyce believed they could produce chip versions of their own design that would perform more functions at less cost for the customer and thus offer a premium price.  Intel’s unique challenge was to make semiconductor memory functional.  Semiconductor memory is smaller in size, provides great performance, and reduces energy consumption.  This first started when Japanese manufacturer Busicom asked Intel to design a set of chips for a family of high-performance programming calculators.  Intel’s engineer, Ted Hoff, rejected the proposal and instead designed a
Single-chip, a logic device that retrieved its application instruction from semiconductor memory.
There was a problem with this new chip Busicom owned it.  Intel was convinced to repurchase the rights to the product.  Intel then offered to return Busicon’s $60,000 investment in exchange for the rights of the product.  The Japanese agreed after struggling with the financial troubles.
Intel’s first microprocessor, the 4004, was introduced in 1971.  This $200 chip delivered as much computing power as the first electronic computer, the ENIAC.  After the 4004, Intel introduced the 8008 microcomputer, which processed eight bits of information at a time.  The 4004 and 8008 began to open new markets for Intel products.  Today, affordable computing power is available to designers of all types of products, producing creativity and innovation.  
In 1981, Intel microprocessor family had grown to include the 16-bit 8086 and the 8-bit 8088 processors.  These two chips created 2,500 winning designs in the year.  A product from IBM was one of those designs, which became the first PC.  Intel was convinced IBM to choose the 8088 as the brains of its first PC.  Because of IBM’s intelligent decision, the PC business grew to tens of millions of units every year.  In 1982, Intel introduced the 286 chip.  It contained 134,000 transistors and provided 3 times the performance of other 16-bit processors during the time.  The 286 were the first microprocessor that offered software compatibility with its predecessors.
In 1985, the Intel 386 hit the market.  The 386 could perform more than five million instructions every second.  Compaq’s DESKPRO 386 was the first PC based on the new microprocessor.
In 1989, Intel 486 processor was ready to hit the market.  This new chip resulted in 1.2 million transistors and the first built-in math coprocessor.  This chip was faster than the original 4004.
In 1993, Intel introduced the Pentium processor, which set new performance standards with up to five times the performance of the Intel 486 processor.  The Pentium processor uses 3.1 million transistors to perform up to 90 MIPS, about 1,500 times the speed of the original 4004.
In 1995, Intel’s first processor in the P6 family, the Pentium Pro processor, was introduced.  It included 5.5 million transistors and contained a high-speed memory cache to accelerate performance.  The Pentium Pro processor was a popular choice for multiprocessor sewers and high performance workstations.
Intel introduced the Pentium II processor in May 1997.  It contains 7.5 million transistors packed into a unique Single Edge Contact Cartridge and delivers high performance.   Intel offers Pentium II processors for Mobil PC, carrying new levels of performance and computer capabilities.
In April 1998, Intel introduced the ... more

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Internet1

"Beam me up, Scottie." This popular line from Star Trek was a demonstration of the advanced technology of the future. Though it was a fictional story, Star Trek became the universal vision of the future. As always reality tends to mimic fiction. Though our society has not quite resulted to living in space, we have made life easier with technology. Economic survival has become more dependent upon information and communications bringing  forth new technology of which was never thought possible. Just a mere thirty  years ago a computer occupied a whole room compared todays palm sized computers, which are faster and perform more functions. Cellular phones, now light and compact, were bulky just ten years ago. The most incredible invention, the Internet, is bringing infinite amount of information to your desktop. In the world of the of the Internet there exist a world blind to skin color and other physical appearances. The Internet while still young in age has grown rapidly, spreading to countries world wide and connecting 50 million users. With its popularity, it is incumbent upon our society to recognize how the Internet works and to be aware of its advantages as well as disadvantages.
While seemingly high tech the Internet concept is rather simple. Computers speak to one another and send information. This is accomplished by sending and receiving electronic impulse, and then decoding them into a message. In order to communicate with one another they are linked up in a network. They are then able to access information from thousands of other computers. The network acts like one large computer storing information in various places, rather than in one physical structure. Users tap into the Internet to access or provide information. Internet technology allows one to surf the World Wide Web or send e-mail. The vision of the Internet that would revolutionize the computer and communications belonged to JCR Licklider of MIT (Leiner n. page). In August of 1962 he envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers which would allow everyone to quickly access data and programs (Leiner n. page). A government sponsored project at Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started in October (Leiner n. page). The race for discovery of such technology raged between the Soviet Union and The United States of America. Both countries wanted control of the possibly powerful tool. Then in 1968, The National Physical Laboratory in Great Britain set up the first test network, which prompted the Pentagons ARPA to fund a larger project in the USA. (Sterling n. page)
However the race was not limited to just nations but also companies. In 1965, working with Thomas Merrill, Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide-area computer ever built. These experiments proved that computers could work together running programs and retrieving data as necessary on remote machines. Roberts put together his plan for ARPANET, published in 1966. At that time he learned of Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury of NPL and Paul Baron and others at RAND. Research at MIT (1961-1967), RAND (1962-1965) and NPL (1964-1967) while parallel had no knowledge of one another. In August of 1968 an RFQ, a refined model of ARPANET was released for the development of one of the key components, the packet switches Interface Message Processors (IMP). Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN) installed the first IMP at UCLA and the first host computer was connected. By the end of 1969 four host computers were connected together into the initial ARPANET and the Internet was off the ground. In 1977, electronic mail was introduced. (Leiner n. page)
As the Internet quickly grew, changes were necessary. The Internets decentralized structure made it easy to expand but its NCP did not have the ability to address networks further down stream than the destination IMP. Bob Kahn decided to develop a new version of the protocol which eventually became known as the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Compared to the NCP which acted as a device driver, the new protocol was more like a communication protocol. In order to make it easier to use, Host were then assigned names, replacing numbers. A group of scientist then set out to show that a compact and simple implementation of TCP ... more

cellular phone market

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  • E: History of intel E: History of intel history of intel The microprocessor has changed our lives in so many ways that it is difficult to recall how different things were before its invention. During the 1960s, computers filled many rooms. Their expensive processing power was available only to a few government labs, research universities, and large corporations. Intel was founded on July 18,1968 by engineers, Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, Andrew Grove, and Arthur Rock. Rock became Chairman, Moore was President, Noyce was Executive Vice...
  • L: Internet1 L: Internet1 Internet1 Beam me up, Scottie. This popular line from Star Trek was a demonstration of the advanced technology of the future. Though it was a fictional story, Star Trek became the universal vision of the future. As always reality tends to mimic fiction. Though our society has not quite resulted to living in space, we have made life easier with technology. Economic survival has become more dependent upon information and communications bringing forth new technology of which was never thought pos...
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  • Digital vs. Analog Cellular Digital vs. Analog Cellular Digital vs. Analog Cellular When purchasing a cellular phone there is always the question of analog or digital. In analog cellular service the voice is transmitted over a specific radio frequency, usually 800 MHz. Digital cellular service on the other hand breaks the voice down into a binary format where the voice is represented by a series of 1\'s and O\'s. These simple definitions will help to familiarize yourself with the two systems, but to truly determine which phone is right for you there ...