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cells have spread What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Recent College Graduates?

What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Recent College Graduates?
Philip Davis, Instructional Technology Librarian
Cornell University
Ithaca, N.Y.
Table of Contents
Cornell University 2
Cornell Library Conducts Study 2
Research Methodology 3
A Review of the Results 3
Rankings, Groupings, and Correlations 4
Ranking Computer Skills: 4
Grouping Computer Skills: 4
Other Computer Skills 4
Comments From Employers 5
Variability of Employment 5
Communication Skills 5
Adaptability 6
What Do These Results Mean? 6
Why is this research important for librarians? 7
What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Recent College Graduates?
Philip Davis, Instructional Technology Librarian
Cornell University
Ithaca, N.Y.
The university is responsible for graduating students with the skills necessary to thrive and lead in a rapidly changing technological environment. Meanwhile corporate leaders are putting more emphasis on recruiting individuals with an understanding of computers and information systems.
A nationwide survey by the Olsten Corp of 1,481 management systems executives found that computer literacy requirements for all job levels increased dramatically over a three-year period in the early nineties. However, another survey by HR Focus of 20 human resource executives found a lack of computer-literacy skills in recent college graduates.
Cornell Library Conducts Study
Cornell University's Albert R. Mann Library has a formal instruction program that reaches nearly 1,000 participants in over 60 hands-on computer workshops per semester. Workshop topics cover bibliographic research techniques, Internet searching principles, database searching skills, word Processing, Spreadsheets, and information management. Classes are supplemented by several online tutorials. Descriptions of these classes and tutorials are located at http://www.mannlib.cornell.edu/workshops/.
The purpose of our research was to identify the computer skills employers felt were necessary when recruiting recent Cornell graduates. The results of this study were part of a larger evaluation of computing across the curriculum in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. This study was also used as a tool to evaluate our library's instruction program, and provided us with a comparison to a 1990 survey of employers, faculty advisors and graduates in the school of Agricultural Economics.
Research Methodology
Corporations who regularly visit the Cornell campus to recruit graduating students were our focus population. Our questionnaire was designed to gather information on five categories of computer literacy skill: 1)Creating Documents and Multimedia, 2) Working with Computer Programs, 3) Managing Databases, 4) Manipulating Numeric Data, 5) Computer Networks, a five-point scale was used to indicate competency levels. Of the 300 questionnaires mailed, 150 returned with usable responses.
A Review of the Results
Generally employers have a high expectation of computer literacy in recent college graduates (Figure 1). A total of 125 (83.3%) indicated that computer competency skills are either important or  very important in the hiring decision.
Within the Documents and Multimedia section, Word Processing (Figure 2) ranked the highest, with 144 (96%0 of employers expecting at least basic word processing skills. The majority of recruiters (97 or 67%) responded not relevant or none to Desktop Publishing Skills (Figure 3), whereas the re was a clustering of 41 respondents (112 or 75%) wanted at least basic Graphics or Presentation Software Skills (Figure 4). Lastly, the majority of employers did not consider Creating Internet Documents (Figure 5) very important, as 105 (70%) considered this skill not relevant, or would be willing to train.
From the Working With Computer Programs section, employers showed a discrepancy in expecting the ability to install or upgrade software (Figure 6). Whereas, 61 (41%) respondents were seeking basic skills, 46 (31%) respondents indicated that this particular skill was not relevant. Ninety-four (64%) employers were looking for at least basic skills to create or modify programs or macros for individual use (Figure 7). The majority of respondents (67%) indicated that the ability to create commercial software (Figure 8) was not relevant to the job; however, for those who responded favorably, 21 (14%) were expecting either intermediate or advanced skills.
Skills from the Managing Databases section scored slightly lower, with basic database entry and editing skills (Figure 9) coming out highest in this group-122 (83%) respondents expected at least basic skills.
Generally Numeric Data skills (and specifically spreadsheet skills ) scored very highly as a group. Even the ability to perform detailed analysis (Figure 10) was expected by 86% of respondents.
Lastly, employers responded very favorably to Computer Network skills (Figure 11). An overwhelming majority (93%) expected e-mail experience, and 63.3% expected competency with ... more

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Genetic engineering 3

Science is a creature that continues to evolve at an ever-increasing rate.  The transformation from tree shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time for the transformation time from an analytical machine, to a calculator, to a computer.  However, science, in the past, has always remained distant.  Science has allowed advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment; but never in history will science have an affect on our lives, as genetic engineering will undoubtedly do.  For the last decade, science has made vast improvements in genetics, monitored by the Human Genome Project.  The goal of this organization is to identify and understand the entire genetic constitution.  "They have the daunting task of identifying and mapping all of the eighty thousand genes, in human DNA, they are making new discoveries weekly" (Reuterlinkextra).  With these discoveries comes many implications, In reviewing the literature genetic engineering needs to be banned because of the social, religious, ethical, and legal implications.
The first step to understanding genetic engineering is to know the start of its creation.  Genetics achieved its first foothold on the secrets of nature's evolutionary process, when an Austrian Monk named Gregor Mendel developed the basics of how genetics work.  Using this, scientist studied the characteristics of organisms for the next one hundred years following Mendel's discoveries.  These early studies concluded that each organism has two sets of character determinants, genes (Stableford 16).  For instance, in regards to eye color, a child could receive one set of genes from his or her father that were encoded one blue, the other brown.  The same child could also receive from its mother two brown genes.  The conclusion is that the child would have a three out of four chance of having brown eyes and a one out if four chance of having blue eyes (Stableford 16).
Inside every person is Deoxyribonucleic acid or more commonly known as DNA.  DNA exist as two long, fine strands of DNA spiraling into the famous figure of the double helix.  The discovery of DNA is attributed to three scientist, Francis Crik, Maurice Wilkins, and James Dewey.   All were given the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962  (Lewin 1).
Each strand of DNA is composed of millions of the essential chemical building blocks of life, chemical bases. "There are four bases Adenine (A), Thiamin (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C).  These bases can only be paired in certain order, (A) only with (T), (G) only with (C), and vice versa" (Barnes 180).  The order of in which these bases occur determine the information available, much as specific letters combine to form words in a sentence.  
DNA resides in the nucleus of all of our cells, except the red blood cells.  In each nucleus, there are forty-six molecules of coiled, double stranded DNA. Each one of these molecules is housed in a structure called a chromosome.  Inside each chromosome are genes. Genes are the chemical message of heredity.  "Genes constitute a blueprint of our possibilities and limitations, the legacy of generations of our ancestors, our genes carry the key to our similarities and uniqueness" (Genetic).  Genes are made up of the chemical bases Adenine, Thiamin, Guanine, and Cytosine.  These base in a certain order makes up codes, these codes determine if you are short, tall, fat, skinny, and etc.
The sex cells are half of the forty-six chromosomes, twenty-three to be exact.  In these cells, by random only certain genes are carried by the cells.  When the sex cell from a man, sperm, and a sex cell from a woman, an egg, combine their genetic information and a new life is created with the traits from its parents.  
Genetic engineering is isolating and removing a desired gene from a strand of DNA.  In genetic engineering, many different apparatuses are used in removing the gene.  One way DNA can be broken up is by ultra-high frequency sound waves, but this procedure is highly inaccurate way of isolating a desirable trait (Stableford 26).  A more accurate way of obtaining the desired trait is the use of restriction enzymes.  These enzymes chemically cut the DNA at a particular location on the strand.  Now that the trait is cut out, it ... more

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