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canadian researcher Marketing Notes



[Category]:

business

[Paper Title]:

Marketing Notes

[Text]:

Chapter 1 - Marketing In a Changing World

What is marketing?

- Creating customer value and stratification are at the very heart of modern
marketing thinking and practice.

Market Defined

- Markets always focus at satisfying customers needs

- Marketing: A social and managerial process by which individuals and groups
obtain what they need and want through creating exchanging products and value
with others.

- Needs: States of felt deprivation

- Wants: Are the form taken by human needs as they are shaped by culture and
individual personality. Wants are described in terms of objects that will
satisfy needs.

- Demands: Human wants that are backed by buying power

- Products: Anything that can be offered to a market for attention,
acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need it. It
includes physical objects, services, persons, places, organizations, and ideas.

- Marketing myopia Sellers may suffer from Marketing myopia they
are so taken with their products that they focus only on existing wants and lose
sight f underlying customer needs. They forget that a physical product is only a
tool to solve a consumer problem.

Value, Satisfaction, and quantity

- Customer Value: The difference between the values the customer gains from
owning and using a product and the cost of obtaing the product.

- Customer Satisfaction: The extent to which a products perceived
performance matches a buyers expectations.

- If the products performance falls short of the customers
expectations, the buyer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches expectation,
the buyer is satisfied. If performance excesses expeditions, the buyer is
delighted. Outstanding marketing companies go out of their way to keep their
customers satisfied.

- Total quantity management (TQM): Programs designed to constantly improve
the quantity of products, services and marketing processes.

Exchange, Transactions, and Relationship

- Exchange: The act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering
something in return.

- Transaction: A trade between two parties that involves at least two things
of value, agreed-upon conditions, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement.

- Relationship Marketing: The process by creating, maintaining, and enhancing
strong, value, -laden relationships with customers and other stakeholders.

- A market network consists of the company and all of its surrounding
stakeholder: customers, employees, suppliers, distributions, retailers,
advertising, agencies, and others with whom it has built mutually profitable
business relationships.

Market

- Market: The set of all actual and potential buyers of a product or service.

- Figure 1-2 (13)

Marketing

- Marketing means managing markets to bring about exchanges for the purpose
of satisfying human needs and wants.

Marketing Management

- Marketing Management: The analysis, planning, implementation, and control
of programs designed to create, build, and maintain beneficial exchanges with
target buyers for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives.

- De-marketing: Marketing to reduce demand temporarily or permantely-the aim
is not to destroy demand, but only to reduce or shift it.

Building profitable customer relationship

- A company demand comes from two groups: 1. New customers and 2. Repeat
customers.

- It costs five times as much to attract new customers as it does to keep an
existing customers satisfied.

Marketing Management Philosophies

- There are five alternatives concepts under which organizations conduct
their marketing activities: the product, selling, marketing, and societal
marketing concept.

- Production Concept: The philosophy that consumers will favour products that
are available and highly affordable and that management should therefore focus
on improving production and distribution efficiency.

- Product Concept: The philosophy that consumers will favour producers that
offer the most quality, performance, and innovative features.

- Selling Concepts: The idea that consumers will not buy enough of the
organizations products unless the organization undertakes a large-scale
selling and promotion effort.

- Marketing Concept: The marketing management philosophy that holds the
achieving organizational goals depends on determining the needs and wants of
target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and
efficiently than competitors do.

The Internet

- Internet: A vast and burgeoning global web of computer networks with no
central management or ownership.

Chapter 2- Strategic Planning the Marketing Process

Strategic Planning

- The annual plan is a short-run marketing plan that describes the current
marketing situation, the company objectives, and the marketing strategy for the
year, the action program, budgets, and controls.

- The long-run plan describes the major factors and forces affecting the
organization during the next several years, it includes the long-term
objectives, the major marketing strategies that will be used to attain them, and
the resources required.

- Strategic Planning: The process of developing and maintaining a strategic
fit between the organizations goals and capabilities and its changing
marketing opportunities.

- At the corporate level, the company first defines its overall purpose and
mission. This mission then is ... more

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Acid Rain
What is acid rain? Acid rain is the term for pollution caused when sulfur and
nitrogen dioxides combine with atmospheric moisture. The term 'acid rain' is
slightly misleading, and would be more accurate if deemed 'enhanced acid rain',
as rain occurs acidic naturally. Acidity is measured on what is know as the pH
scale. Fourteen is the most basic, seven is the most neutral, and zero is the
most acidic. Pure rain has a pH level of 7, which is exactly neutral. The
acidity of rain is determined by the pH of pure water in reaction with
atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, resulting in carbonic acid. These
particles partly dissociate to produce hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. A
bicarbonate atom is an ion formed by one hydrogen atom, one carbon at atom, and
three oxygen atoms, and is very effective in natural waters at neutralizing
hydrogen ions and reducing acidity. The dissociation results in the natural
acidity of pure rain, which is moderately acidic at a pH of 5.7. Rain less than

5.7 is considered 'acid rain', meaning it has reacted with acidic atmospheric
gases other than carbon dioxide, such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide.

Sulfur dioxide is produced by electric utilities, industrial, commercial and
residential heating, smelters, diesel engines and marine and rail transport,
which creates sulfuric acid in rain. Nitrogen dioxide will also react with the
rain, caused largely by transportation (cars, trucks, planes, etc.) and electric
utilities, producing nitric acid. There is a certain degree of naturally
occurring acidity in rain water. This acid is from reaction with alkaline
chemicals, found in soils, lakes and stream, and can occasionally occur when a
volcano erupts as well. Bacterial action in soils and degasing from oceanic
plankton also contribute to the acidity found in rain. More than 90% of the
sulfur and 95% of the nitrogen emissions which occur in North America are due to
the pollution created by humans.1 How Is Acid Rain Formed? Acid rain consists
mainly of acids formed in the atmosphere. It consists of the oxides of sulfur,

SO2 and SO3, and of nitrogen NO and NO2. Let us examine the major contributor to
acid rain, sulfur oxides. Natural sources which emit sulfur dioxide include
volcanoes, sea spray, plankton and rotting vegetation. Despite these natural
occurrences, the burning of fossil fuels (such as coal and oil) can be largely
blamed for the emissions. The chemical reactions begin as energy from sunlight,
in the form of photons, hit ozone molecules (O3) to form free oxygen (O2), as
well as single reactive oxygen atoms (O). The oxygen atoms react with water
molecules (H2O), producing electrically charged, negative hydroxyl radicals
(HO). These hydroxyl radicals are responsible for oxidizing sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen dioxide, which produces sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Some particles
will settle to the ground (in the form of acid deposition) or vegetation can
absorb some of the SO2 gas directly from the atmosphere. When sulfur dioxide
comes in contact with the atmosphere, it oxidizes and forms a sulfate ion. It
becomes sulfuric acid as it joins with hydrogen atoms in the air and falls down
to earth. Oxidation occurs most in clouds, especially in heavily polluted air,
where other compounds such as ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction,
increasing the amount of sulfur dioxide changing to sulfuric acid. Not all of
the sulfur dioxide is converted to sulfuric acid, and it is not uncommon for a
substantial amount to float up into the atmosphere, move to another area, and
return to earth as sulfur dioxide, unconverted. S (in fossil fuels) + O2 =* SO2

2 SO2 + O2 =* 2 SO3 Much of the sulfur dioxide is converted to sulfur trioxide
in the atmosphere SO3 + H2O =* H2SO4 The sulfur trioxide can then dissolve
within water to form sulfuric acid Nitric oxide and nitric dioxide are mainly
from power plants and exhaust fumes. Similar to sulfur dioxide, reactions are
heavily catalyzed in heavily polluted clouds where iron, manganese, ammonia and
hydrogen peroxide are present. Also, the formation of nitric acid can trigger
further reactions which release new hydroxyl radicals to generate more sulfuric
acid. The following is a typical reaction, which is direct combination of
nitrogen and oxygen at the high temperature inside a car engine. N2 + O2 + heat
=* 2NO 2NO + O2 =* 2NO2 This nitrogen monoxide immediately reacts with oxygen
and forms nitrogen dioxide in the following reaction 3NO2 + H2O =* 2HNO3 (aq) +

NO The nitrogen will then dissolve in water in ... more

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