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business marketing Advertising and promotion campaigns of coca-cola in the euro

Advertising & Promotion Campaigns of Coca-Cola in the European Union
Executive Summary                1

Coca-Cola, which was named Beverage Industry's 1999 Company of the Year, has embraced a decentralized operating philosophy, recognizing that each market in which they operate has "different demands which must be met in unique ways"1.  Coca-Cola Enterprises (The European bottler for Coke) CEO Henry Schimberg has stated that although they have well-defined general policies, much of the responsibility to succeed and make decisions has to come from each local market, not headquarters in Atlanta.2
While it may seem that firms have to choose between the extremes of a global vs. customized approach, in practice the method used is often a combination of both, "blending uniformity with individual area differences".3  Coca-Cola, for instance, has previously had a successful international soccer-star campaign which featured the same common theme, but with a different celebrity athlete for each targeted country.  Such pan-European advertising is becoming increasingly popular and common. 4   This strategy has built a strong global brand awareness not only in Europe but throughout the world.  Based on this strong brand awareness, Coca-Cola tailors each ad to a specific country to achieve global sales success through local penetration.
 EU Promotional Campaigns         2

Coca-Cola uses a multitude of promotional vehicles to attract new coke drinkers and retain current ones.  One of the strongest promotional venues has been through television and sporting events (mainly soccer) but in the nineties the internet is strongly becoming a popular means to increase promotions.
 Sports Promotion
 Coke takes a global approach to its sports promotion.  In 1997 they established managers for each of the different sports that Coke sponsors worldwide.5  This global coordination effort helps to oversee major marketing campaigns, however it also still allows unique advertising techniques and messages to be conveyed in each country.  
 Television
Recently, Coca-Cola has hired the services of TeleVest, a New York media agency specialized in purchasing television airtime, to select and locate TV series to purchase or sponsor in order to more effectively reach European television viewers.  By purchasing programs, Coca-Cola will be able to license them to various markets with contracts stipulating that Coca-Cola receive a certain amount of free ad-time spread across other shows on the station.  This strategy seems attractive especially as most international markets have national networks (such as TF1, A2, or FR3 in France) but no local stations. 6
Website Promotion
As expected, Coca-Cola has not just a European website, but several websites for certain countries in the EC; the countries offering such sites are France, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Germany, and Norway.  Upon examining these various sites, we concluded that they are another example of Coca-Cola's decentralized marketing campaign.  Each country's management team has the freedom to market itself the way they want, as long as certain guidelines are followed.  In France, the site (www.coca-cola.fr) is presented as a web-zine, offering the latest in music and sports-related news, obviously targeting a young public; In Spain, the site (www.siempre-on.com) offers coupons which you can print out at home, indicating that Coca-Cola reaches a price conscious audience.  Denmark's site (www.coca-cola.dk) is primarily a contest site currently featuring trips to Australia.  Thus, Coca-Cola customizes its web campaign for each country in order to more effectively tap into people's feelings, integrating any culturally relevant issues or preferences into the sites' presentation.
Specific Promotional Activities
The following are specific promotional activities that are currently being done in the various countries in the European Union.
Spain
Telefonica Interactiva entered into a promotional arrangement with Coca-Cola Espana aimed at boosting Teleline's user base.  Telefonica Interactiva, Internet subsidiary of Telefonica, has entered into a promotional arrangement with Coca-Cola Espana aimed at boosting Teleline's user base. Under the deal, people who buy 20 half-litre Coca-Cola bottles will receive a year's Internet access for only Pta4k Vs Pta13k/y on average at present. 7
Coca-Cola launched "Dress-up with Coca-Cola Light" promotion in Spain in co-operation with clothing retailer Cortefiel.  A consumer who buys the soft drink at a bar can have a special card marked by the waiter, building up points giving discounts of up to 20% at outlets of Cortefiel's Springfield and Women's Secret chains.  The promotion ... more

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Baseball and American Popular

Baseball is an integral part of American pop culture. Many Americans grow up with baseball, playing it before they can even count all the bases. It is glorified, taught, and fed to us. When we play baseball, we find a respect for the game. The respect we gain from playing it has turned the game into a tradition of American culture. It has formed itself into the business of professional baseball, namely major league baseball. Professional players have become recognized all over the world. They are sought out and admired by fans. Because of their popularity, these players have written books, endorsed commercial products, and found successful and rewarding careers by playing a game. According to Wallup, author of Baseball: An Informal History, baseball has been apart of our culture since the mid to late nineteenth century(Wallup, p16). Our great grandparents, grandparents, and parents have been brought up with it and our parents teach the sport to us.

When the notion of baseball comes to mind, a feeling of nostalgia and tradition come to me. Many of my feelings and memories originate from my childhood. I remember a beautiful summer day. My dad and I arrived at the baseball stadium to watch the game. We walked up the concrete walkway inside the stadium. The concrete walls and floors made my surroundings drab and grey. Finally, we made it to entrance into the stadium. I came out of the dark tunnels into the bright sunlight. The first thing to catch my eye was the vivid rush of color. Underneath the fluffy white clouds and their deep blue canvas, I could look down and see players in vibrant red and blue uniforms warming up for the game. The well-watered grass on the field was a brighter green than any other grass I had seen. The outfield seemed to be so perfect. It appeared that each blade had been cut by hand. The edge of the infield, where the dark, watered-down dirt met the intensely green grass was a precise and well-defined contrast. We sat down and I took in my surroundings. There were men walking up and down the stairs selling various concessions. They had peanuts, beer, soda, ice cream, popcorn, and many other tempting treats. The players soon finished their warm-ups and the crowd became frenzied with excitement. The game was about to start.

Baseball has its own traditions in America and playing the national anthem is one of them. This well-practiced act of group togetherness serves two purposes. First, it pays tribute to our country, bringing our American values to the game. Secondly, it seems to hype up the game, making the cheering crowd an active part of the contest. This enthusiasm leads to cheers when their team turns a great play or to boos and catcalls due to an umpire's bad judgement.

It hard to describe why Americans likes to watch baseball. For me, it has to do with the excitement and appreciation of the game. Since I was big enough to hold a baseball, I have been playing the game. I appreciate it because I have played it and I have experienced the struggle between pitcher and batter. Neither one hates the other, but when the pitcher takes the mound, he or she wants to blast it past his opponent. Conversely, when batters step up, their personal goal is to put a hole through the pitcher when they send the ball blazing back. It's this understanding of the emotions involved that makes watching the game enjoyable to me.

It has become a tradition to go watch a game with the family. Rooted in this custom are our culture's values of family and passing the experiences from parent to child. According to A.G. Spalding, author of America's National Game, baseball "is the exponent of American Courage, Confidence, Combativeness ...Dash, ...Determination, ...Energy, ...Enthusiasm

...Spirit, ...Vim, Vigor, and Virility"(Spalding, p.4). We see the game of baseball as an activity for family to go to the local ball park to see a son, daughter, nephew, or niece play. It pleases us to see our friends or family playing the game and enjoying it. Baseball gives us reason to get our friends ... more

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