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british physician Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, as he was known in full, brought many interesting ideas to the world of science.  He was credited for developing the evolutionary theory by natural selection and also for discovering a species of frog while in South America.  Darwin has many followers of his theory of evolution but there are many people who are trying to disprove his theory.  These people have showed that their different theories prove Darwin could not have been correct in every aspect of his theory, but there is no absolute right or wrong to the theory of evolution.  The world will continue to be divided on the subject of evolution.
Charles Darwin was born on February 18, 1809 in Shrewsbury, England.  He is the son of Robert Waring Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood Darwin.  His father, Robert Darwin, was a physician and naturalist.  Eramus Darwin was Charles Darwins paternal grandfather.  He was a poet, philosopher, and naturalist.  Eramus Darwin was also the author of Zoonomia, which is more commonly known as the Law of Organic Life.  Charles Darwins maternal grandfather was  Josiah Wedgwood.  Josiah Wedgwood was an artisan-entrepreneur.  Charles Darwin is best known for developing the theory of evolution by natural selection.
Charles Darwin spent his childhood in England.  When Charles was at the young age of eight his mother died.  After his mothers death adoring sisters and an older brother raised him.  As a young child, in a Divinity School in Shrewbury, it was stressed that he learn the classics, but he was a very uninspired student.  He was repeatedly reprimanded for wasting his time collecting animal specimens, especially beetles, and performing chemical experiments.  At sixteen he went to The University of Edinburgh to study medicine.  He had planned to study medicine,
but he could not take the sight of surgery without anesthetics so he did not continue in that field.  The fact that Darwin did not show enthusiasm in the field of medicine disappointed his father very much.  Then Darwin was sent to The University of Cambridge in 1827.  Here he was to study for the clergy.  The clergy is the body of people ordained for religious work such as ministers, pastors, and priest. (The World Book Encyclopedia, Volume 1, page 389)  However, his academic record reflected his lack of interest in his studies of this field.  He eventually abandoned it completely and never became a clergyman.
Charles Darwin received money from his father, which made it unnecessary for him to acquire a job and allowed him the freedom to work as an independent scientist.  Since he did not become a clergyman, as his schooling had prepared him, Darwin proposed to his first cousin, Emma Wedgwood.  They were married on January 29, 1839.  She was a devoted wife and brought money and housewifery skills that provided him an environment to work in peacefully for forty years.  During this forty years Charles and Emma Darwin had ten children.  Two that died when they were infants and one, Anne, died when she was ten years old. (1994-2000 Encyclopedia Britannica).  They had five surviving sons and three surviving daughters.
Charles Darwin was known as a British naturalist even from a young age because of his interest in the animal species.  A naturalist is a person who makes a study of animals and plants, especially in their native habitats. (The World Book Encylopedia, Volume 2, page 1371).  During August of 1831, at the age of twenty-two, Darwin served as a naturalist aboard the H.M.S. Beagle on a British science expedition around the world, but he was not paid while on this trip.  This trip took five years, from 1831 to 1836.  During this trip Darwin took extremely detailed notes and collected many specimens.  After returning to London and studying his notes and specimens carefully Darwin developed several theories, all related to each other.  The first, that evolution did occur; second, evolutionary change was gradual, taking millions of years to occur; third, the main mechanism for evolution was the process of natural selection; and fourth, that the millions of species alive in our world today all came from a single original form of life.  This evolution occurred through a branching process called specialization.  All of these processes made up his theory ... more

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Greek literature



GREEK LITERATURE. The great British philosopher-mathematician Alfred North Whitehead once commented that all philosophy is but a footnote to Plato . A similar point can be made regarding Greek literature as a whole.
  Over a period of more than ten centuries, the ancient Greeks created a literature of such brilliance that it has rarely been equaled and never surpassed. In poetry, tragedy, comedy, and history, Greek writers created masterpieces that have inspired, influenced, and challenged readers to the present day.
  To suggest that all Western literature is no more than a footnote to the writings of classical Greece is an exaggeration, but it is nevertheless true that the Greek world of thought was so far-ranging that there is scarcely an idea discussed today that was not debated by the ancient writers. The only body of literature of comparable influence is the Bible.
  The language in which the ancient authors wrote was Greek. Like English, Greek is an Indo-European language; but it is far older. Its history can be followed from the 14th century BC to the present. Its literature, therefore, covers a longer period of time than that of any other Indo-European language .
  Scholars have determined that the Greek alphabet was derived from the Phoenician alphabet. During the period from the 8th to the 5th century BC, local differences caused the forms of letters to vary from one city-state to another within Greece. From the 4th century BC on, however, the alphabet became uniform throughout the Greek world.

CLASSICAL PERIOD

  There are four major periods of Greek literature: preclassical, classical, Hellenistic-Roman, and Byzantine. Of these the most significant works were produced during the preclassical and classical eras.

Epic Tradition

  At the beginning of Greek literature stand the two monumental works of Homer, the 'Iliad' and the 'Odyssey'. The figure of Homer is shrouded in mystery. Although the works as they now stand are credited to him, it is certain that their roots reach far back before his time (see Homeric Legend). The 'Iliad' is the famous story about the Trojan War. It centers on the person of Achilles, who embodied the Greek heroic ideal.
  While the 'Iliad' is pure tragedy, the 'Odyssey' is a mixture of tragedy and comedy. It is the story of Odysseus, one of the warriors at Troy. After ten years fighting the war, he spends another ten years sailing back home to his wife and family. During his ten-year voyage, he loses all of his comrades and ships and makes his way home to Ithaca disguised as a beggar.
  Both of these works were based on ancient legends. The stories are told in language that is simple, direct, and eloquent. Both are as fascinatingly readable today as they were in ancient Greece.
  The other great poet of the preclassical period was Hesiod. He is more definitely recorded in history than is Homer, though very little is known about him. He was a native of Boeotia in central Greece, and he lived and worked in about 800 BC. His two works were 'Works and Days' and 'Theogony'.
  The first is a faithful depiction of the dull and poverty-stricken country life he knew so well, and it sets forth principles and rules for farmers. 'Theogony' is a systematic account of creation and of the gods. It vividly describes the ages of mankind, beginning with a long-past golden age.
  Together the works of Homer and Hesiod made a kind of bible for the Greeks. Homer told the story of a heroic past, and Hesiod dealt with the practical realities of daily life.

Lyric Poetry

  The type of poetry called lyric got its name from the fact that it was originally sung by individuals or a chorus accompanied by the instrument called the lyre. The first of the lyric poets was probably Archilochus of Paros about 700 BC. Only fragments remain of his work, as is the case with most of the poets. The few remnants suggest that he was an embittered adventurer who led a very turbulent life.
  The two major poets were Sappho and Pindar. Sappho, who lived in the period from 610 to 580 BC, has always been admired for the beauty of her writing. Her ... more

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