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Meaning Of Death
Death is a word that we know and fear, but what exactly does the word death mean to you? The end of life? The end of time? The end of hope? Wellmaybe. Some see Death as a messenger sent by god to take away people's lives. For some people, death is the worse of the worse thing of all, but for the protagonists in the plays Amadeus and Waiting for Godot death is something that they do not fear. They actually want to die or use death as a tool to achieve a certain goal. Although this might sound odd, there is a solid logic behind it. While death is a significant theme in both plays, the meaning of death between the two plays varies.
In the play Waiting for Godot, Estragon and Vladimir were trapped in the days simply waiting for Godot. Throughout the two days of the play, most of the things that happened on the second day were identical to those happened on the first. The days always began with Estragon coming back from the ditch and meeting Vladimir; Estragon tries to take or takes off the boots; Pozzo and Lucky comes in; the idea of hanging themselves and leaving; the Boy comes in and tell them that Mr.Godot can't come but will come for sure tomorrow; Estragon tries to sleep; and then the day is over and Estragon goes back to the ditch. Their days were too boring and repetitive, and they were struggling to kill time by finding something to do:
VLADIMIR: That passed the time.
ESTRAGON: It ould have passed in any case.
VLADIMIR: Yes, but not so rapidly.
ESTRAGON: What do we do now?
VLADIMIR: I don't know. (Beckette, P.32)
On both days in the play, Estragon wanted to leave the country road and go somewhere else, but when Vladimir reminds him that they are Waiting for Godot, Estragon then changed his mind and stayed with Vladimir to wait for Godot:
ESTRAGON: Let's go.
VLADIMIR: We can't.
ESTRAGON: Why not?
VLADIMIR: We're waiting for Godot.
ESTRAGON: (despairingly). Ah!
Pause. (Beckette, P.31)
In addition, the two bums wanted to hang themselves on both days, but on the first day they were afraid that if one died the other would be left alone, on the second day the rope broke while they were testing it to see if it was strong enough to hang them. This idea of hanging themselves was Estragon's:
VLADIMIR: It's for the kidneys. (Silence. Estragon looks attentively
at the tree.) What do we do now?
VLADIMIR: Yes, but while waiting.
ESTRAGON: What about hanging ourselves?
VALDIMIR: Hmm. It'd give us an erection.
ESTRAGON: (highly excited). An erection! (Beckette, P.12)
This is because he couldn't stand the boredom and he wanted a form of change very badly. They seem to be trapped in the repetitive process of waiting for Godot, and they believe that they will be either happier when they hang themselves or when Godot eventually arrives to save them. Although Godot is referred to as a person in the play, we can certainly think of Godot as death itself, and that is what the two friends are waiting for. Still, death is considered to be a change and that's what Vladimir and Estragon wants. No matter what/who Godot is, Godot will still be the one who can give them this change that they so desperately need. Therefore, the result of both choices is death. In this case, death is considered to be a change or an escape from suffering in life, and both Estragon and Vladimir were not afraid of death, but rather they were hoping that death will come and end their suffer. The reason why Estragon and Vladimir have to wait for Godot (death) instead of killing themselves is because they don't have the ability to die together. If only one of them dies, the other will be left alone and not be able to die. For example, if Estragon wants to hang himself and die, Vladimir had to lift him up so he could reach the tree and tie the rope; but after Estragon dies, there would be no one to lift Vladimir up the tree so he could hang himself. Although this reason is not mentioned in the play, this is the only ... more
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Pesticides: What are they?
Pesticides are chemicals that are used to destroy pests. In the agricultural industry, pesticides are classified into two categories, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic. A carcinogenic pesticide is a substance or agent producing or inciting cancer. Conversely, a non-carcinogenic pesticide is substance that does not produce or incite cancer. Most agricultural pesticides were registered in the 1950's, with no standard regulations. The most considerable standard prior to the amendments of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) was, if a revocation of a pesticide occurred, would it have an impact on the prices or availability of food to the consumer? Today, the 208 pesticides used in the United States are regulated by the FFDCA. Bills such as, The Delaney Clause and The Food Quality Protection Act have modified and enforced pesticide regulations. Consumer concerns with the usage of pesticides in the agricultural industry, in regards to health factors, have overwhelmed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and demand they enforce pesticide regulations. With the assistance from other organizations such as the Senate Agriculture Committee (SAC), National Academy of Science (NAS), National Resources Defense Council (NRDC), and Consumers Union (CU), the EPA has made a notable progress. Throughout the years, consumers have pushed for research of the chemicals and substances that produce agricultural pesticides and what these pesticides do to our internal system. Congressman, James J. Delaney was also convinced that too many pesticide chemicals were found in foods. So in 1958, the House Select Committee investigated the use of chemicals in food products and amended section 409 of the FFDCA, in result creating The Delaney Clause.
The bill The Delaney Clause was implemented to avoid carcinogenic pesticides in the United States food supply. According to Congressional Reports, the intent of the bill was to reduce public exposure to a wide range of health effects, including nerve damage, reproductive failure, birth defects, and cancer due to hazardous pesticides. Although these health effects have not been proven in human life form, it has been proven that some pesticides are carcinogenic in lab animals. However, the bill overlooked many aspects of the agricultural industry and encompassed many loopholes. For instance, there were no requirements for the protection of infants and children. Pesticide residues, or rather allowable tolerances, were based on economic benefits. In other words, would it have an impact on the prices or availability of food to the consumer? If the pesticide was deemed carcinogenic, it was prohibited to weigh the benefits in the production of raw and processed foods. Furthermore, farmers had no obligation to inform consumers of the pesticide tolerances and residue levels. The bill, "prohibited the approval of food or feed tolerances for pesticide residues in processed food or animal feed if the pesticide is found to induce cancer in man or animals, regardless of the level of risk." (Congressional Research Service: Report for Congress. 1995.) Nonetheless, the EPA interpreted the language of the amendment to mean "de minimis", meaning low carcinogenic levels.
The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, Les vs. Reilly, did not agree with the EPA's interpretation of "de minimus" and rather ruled a strict literal interpretation of the 1958 amendment to mean, "zero risk". The court case Les vs. Reilly challenged the EPA's legal responsibility to research, test, approve or revoke agricultural pesticides.
Petitioners seek review of a final order of the EPA permitting the use of four pesticides [Benomyl on citrus and rice, Mancozeb on barley, grapes, and rye, Phosmet an insecticide, and Triflualin a Herbicide] as food additives although they have been found to induce cancer. Petitioners challenge the final order on the ground that it violates the provisions of the Delaney clause, which prohibits the use of any food additive that is found to induce cancer.
(FindLaw.com, Line 18) Les vs. Reilly settled on July 08, 1992. The case established the EPA's legal responsibility to revoke certain carcinogenic pesticides found in raw and processed foods, no mater how small the risk. In result, under the provisions of the court, EPA has proposed to revoke nine "de minimis" pesticides. Lynn Goldman, EPA Assistant Administrator for Prevention, stated "This administration remains committed to comprehensive reform of our pesticide food safety laws, to establish ... more
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O: Meaning Of Death
Meaning Of Death Death is a word that we know and fear, but what exactly does the word death mean to you? The end of life? The end of time? The end of hope? Wellmaybe. Some see Death as a messenger sent by god to take away people's lives. For some people, death is the worse of the worse thing of all, but for the protagonists in the plays Amadeus and Waiting for Godot death is something that they do not fear. They actually want to die or use death as a tool to achieve a certain goal. Although th...
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