Biotechnology


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biotechnology Genetic Engineering

Imagine a world full of mini Hitlers seeking world domination, killing millions as their solution to establish a superior race or bunch or 2 headed humans eating a pig with 6 legs. These scenarios may sound like something out a science fiction novel, but this is the kind of things that people think about when they hear the words genetic engineering
Genetic engineering is now an important part of this world. It is used to cure diseases, develop food that grows faster and food thats healthier. Without genetic engineering it will not be possible to feed the 10 billion humans expected by the year 2030. Only by using this new technology can we increase the food production enough so that it is possible to feed this growing world. This can be done by producing plant varieties that is more precisely adapted to local conditions. This also helps poor farmers by reducing their expenses such as pesticides.
In developing worlds there are over 100 million children with vitamin A deficiency causing huge problems such as blindness. These people eat mainly rice and rice has no vitamin A. Right now the only way they can get enough vitamin A is by costly supplements that doesnt reach everyone. So scientists are genetically engineering rice so that it contains vitamin A, and this rice seed could be distributed to the poorest areas of the world, a brilliant and simple idea.
So how can consumers living in developed world benefit from plant biotechnology? Using modern biotechnology scientists have already produced food with improved flavour, food that is better for health and food with better qualities. Examples of these are apples and sweet corns that are insect resistant, frost resistant strawberries and seedless grapes.
One of the main reasons why people oppose genetic engineering is that they think biotechnology is an imprecise science and so it will likely to result in unanticipated outcomes and dangerous surprises. But did you know that people have been cross breeding plants and animals for thousands of years? And every time they do this they are randomly recombining up to 40,000 genes. If using biotech scientists are just moving 1 or 2 specific genes, and the effects can be monitored and tested more easily. So in comparison genetic engineering is a lot safer than traditional cross breeding.
Another important aspect of genetic engineering is its medical purposes. For example cystic fibrosis maybe cured if a gene can somehow enter the cells that line that lungs, it will begin producing the critical proteins that CF patients lack. Scientists are working on this right now and some patients receiving this treatment have already been able to produce this protein in small quantities.
Genetic engineering and the knowledge about the effects of DNA variation among individuals can lead to revolutionary new ways to treat and even prevent thousands of disorders that affect us. Learning about non-human organisms DNA can also help us understand their natural capabilities which can be applied towards solving challenges in health care, energy sources, agriculture, and environmental cleanup

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Genetics




    Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has science be able to as deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering will undoubtedly do. By understanding genetic engineering and its history, discovering its possibilities, and answering the moral and safety questions it brings forth, the blanket of fear covering this remarkable technical miracle can be lifted.
    The first step to understanding genetic engineering and embracing its possibilities for society is to obtain a rough knowledge base of its history and method. The basis for altering the evolutionary process is dependant on the understanding of how individuals pass on characteristics to their offspring. Genetics achieved its first foothold on the secrets of nature's evolutionary process when an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel developed the first "laws of heredity." Using these laws, scientists studied the characteristics of organisms for most of the next one hundred years following Mendel's discovery. These early studies concluded that each organism has two sets of character determinants, or genes (Stableford 16). For instance, in regards to eye color, a child could receive one set of genes from his or her father that were encoded one blue, and the other brown. The same child could also receive two brown genes from his or her mother. The conclusion for this inheritance would be the child has a three in four chance of having brown eyes, and a one in three chance of having blue eyes (Stableford 16).
    Genes are transmitted through chromosomes which reside in the nucleus of every living organism's cells. Each chromosome is made up of fine strands of deoxyribonucleic acids, or DNA. The information carried on the DNA determines the cells function within the organism.
    DNA discovery is attributed to the research of three scientists, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and James Dewey Watson in 1951. They were all later accredited with the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Lewin 1).
    "The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution" (Stableford 25). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism's DNA, and place it into the DNA of another organism. This would create a new DNA strand, full of new encoded instructions; a strand that would have taken Mother Nature millions of years of natural selection to develop. Isolating and removing a desired gene from a DNA strand involves many different tools. DNA can be broken up by exposing it to ultra-high frequency sound waves, but this is an extremely inaccurate way of isolating a desirable DNA section (Stableford 26). A more accurate way of DNA splicing is the use of "restriction enzymes, which are produced by various species of bacteria" (Clarke 1). The restriction enzymes cut the DNA strand at nucleotide bases both upstream and downstream from the gene to be transfered. Now that the desired portion of the DNA is cut out, it can be joined to another strand of DNA by using enzymes called ligases. The final important step in the creation of a new DNA strand is giving it the ability to self-replicate. This can be accomplished by using special pieces of DNA, called vectors, that permit the generation of multiple copies of a total DNA strand and fusing it to the newly created DNA structure.
    Another newly developed method, called polymerase chain reaction, allows for faster replication of DNA strands and does not require the use of vectors (Clarke 1). In nature, most organisms copy their DNA in the same way. The PCR mimics this process, only it does it in a test tube. When any cell divides, enzymes called polymerases make a copy of all the DNA in each chromosome. The first step in this process is to "unzip" the two DNA chains of the double helix. As the two strands separate, DNA polymerase makes a copy ... more

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  • B: Genetic Engineering B: Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering: A leap in to the future or a leap towards destruction? Introduction Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but n...
  • I: Genetic Engineering I: Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Imagine a world full of mini Hitlers seeking world domination, killing millions as their solution to establish a superior race or bunch or 2 headed humans eating a pig with 6 legs. These scenarios may sound like something out a science fiction novel, but this is the kind of things that people think about when they hear the words genetic engineering Genetic engineering is now an important part of this world. It is used to cure diseases, develop food that grows faster and f...
  • O: Genetics O: Genetics Genetics Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has science be able to as deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering will undoub...
  • T: Genetic engineering. 2 T: Genetic engineering. 2 Genetic engineering. 2 Genetic Engineering: Science Genetic Engineering, history and future Altering the Face of Science. Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but ...
  • E: Transgenic Rice Plants E: Transgenic Rice Plants Transgenic Rice Plants For centuries, rice has been one of the most important staple crops for the world and it now currently feeds more than two billion people, mostly living in developing countries. Rice is the major food source of Japan and China and it enjoys a long history of use in both cultures. In 1994, worldwide rice production peaked at 530 million metric tons. Yet, more than 200 million tons of rice are lost each year to biotic stresses such as disease and insect infestation. This ext...
  • C: Indians Immigrating to America C: Indians Immigrating to America Indians Immigrating to America Their struggle as immigrant minority and major contributions to the American society Asian Indians come from an area with the second largest population in the world, but form only one of the smallest minorities in the United States. America was influenced by their religious and political beliefs long before the first immigrants arrived in the 19th century. The congressional act of 1947 granted them citizenship. Now, Asian Indians hold many important occupations (st...
  • H: Genetic Engineering H: Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Genetic Technology and the betterment of our world What exactly is genetic engineering? A simple definition of genetic engineering is the ability to isolate DNA pieces that contain selected genes of other species(Muench 238). Genetic engineering has been the upcoming field of biology since the early nineteen seventies. The prosperous field has benefits for both the medical and also the agricultural field. The diminishing of diseases, especially congenital disorders, reducti...
  • N: Economic Espionage N: Economic Espionage Economic Espionage Economic Espionage A small Mississauga electronics safety equipment company is broken into. Although filing cabinets and desks were rummaged through, nothing was seemingly taken. An officer discovered the company had drawn up a bid for $7 million dollar contract a day or so before the break-in. The contract in question was for a foreign country. It was later discovered that the company in question was known for its aggressive economic espionage. An iron ore shipping company wa...
  • O: Gm Foods O: Gm Foods Gm Foods Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful to Nature The process of Genetically Modified (GM) Foods is the way of the future, it is promised to help eliminate world hunger across the world. Genetically modified foods are going to create a healthier, drought resistant crops which do not need any sprayed chemicals, but that is not the case. Genetically Modified Foods, are unsafe because of the many organisms in the food that may affect the body, which has not been identified yet. It is estimated...
  • L: Genetically Engineered Food L: Genetically Engineered Food Genetically Engineered Food Millions of people all over the planet suffer from poverty and starvation. One very interesting but experimental solution to the problem of world hunger is genetically engineered food. The process involves the crossbreeding of crops in a laboratory with species that are not plant like. Say for example, that a scientist crossed a fish and a potato. The diversity of this gene mixture is supposed to give this hybrid crop special characteristics like resistance to disease...
  • O: Manufacture In Scotland Today O: Manufacture In Scotland Today Word Count: 1425 Contents Contents page Page 1 Introduction Page 2 Electronics Page 3 Semiconductors Page 5 Aerospace Page 6 Automotive Page 7 Conclusion Page 8 References Page 9 Manufacturing In Scotland Today Introduction This report is not so much on the state of the manufacturing industry in Scotland but rather of its current success. Scottish productivity consistently ranks among the highest worldwide and multinational companies have expanded their presence in Scotland to capitalise on t...
  • G: None_Provided G: None_Provided None_Provided Monkeys' Own Cells Reported to Reverse a Nerve Disorder Related Article Decisive Moment on Parkinson's Fetal-Cell Transplants (April 20) Forum Join a Discussion on Science in the News By PHILIP J. HILTS cientists have reported that they reversed a Parkinson's-like disease in monkeys by transplanting their tissue into their brains. The method, reported in the current issue of the journal Neuron, avoids the problems of Parkinson's research using fetal-cell transplants. The cells used...
  • Y: Genetic Engineering: A Leap In To The Future Or A Y: Genetic Engineering: A Leap In To The Future Or A Genetic Engineering: A Leap In To The Future Or A Leap Towards Destruc IntroductionScience is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has scienc...
  • The Stem Cell Dilemma The Stem Cell Dilemma The Stem Cell Dilemma The Stem Cell Dilemma Every day, nearly 3,000 people die while waiting for an organ transplant (D\'Agnese). Moreover, 66,000 people are still on an organ donor list in the United States, few of which will ever see their name come up on that list (Improving). Many people believe nothing can be done about this sad fact. However, this is not the case. Studies on stem-cell research point toward a solution to this deadly problem. With efficient use of stem cells, many diseases...
  • Heraclitus Heraclitus Heraclitus JUST as 130 nations were meeting in Montreal recently to forge the first global treaty regulating genetically modified crops, Frito-Lay Inc. was telling its farmers in the United States not to grow genetically engineered corn for use in Doritos chips and other snacks. The problem, the company said, was not a risk to health from the corn but a risk that consumers wouldn\'t want it. These two events reflect the unease with which genetically engineered foods have been received. Science h...
  • Fatal familial insomnia Fatal familial insomnia fatal familial insomnia Fatal familial insomnia is a genetic disorder. It manifests itself by many symptoms due to the degeneration of a certain part of the brain, the thalamus. The disease also results in the formation of amyloid plaques. This is the build up of a waxy substance made of proteins associated with polysaccharides. The disease is a result of a mutation of a normal protein that is associated with brain tissue. This is the prion protein. In the case of fatal familial insomnia, the mu...
  • Clone or not to clone Clone or not to clone Clone or not to clone Did you ever imagine having a child that is the exact replica of you? Did you ever imagine of having the cure for heart disease or cancer? Well, these fantasies are not far from reach. The way we could reach these fantasies is through a process called cloning. Cloning is the replication of an exact genetic copy of an organism by use of a somatic tissue (or cell) from the donor organism. Cloning can be used in humans, human organs, or even animals. There are many advantages ...
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  • Human Genome Project Human Genome Project Human Genome Project HUMAN GENOME PROJECT Adam and Eve were doomed for trying to be like god, this is the same damnation mankind is headed to. Everyones dream is to have absolute power and control of everything. The genome project and DNA engineering gives man the ability to create life and customize life to his specific needs of likes. So how good is too good? Mans ability to make life or create perfect human beings so they can be in a state of Utopia will disturb the balance of nature. Every...
  • The current state of the economy in the United Sta The current state of the economy in the United Sta Gdp The current state of the economy in the United States has been slow in recent months. While the economy is not currently in a recession, we may eventually fall victim to the first recession weve had in nearly ten years. The economy in general is showing growth, just not much. It will be difficult to predict what exactly will happen to the US economy in the future. Many economists do not agree on what will become of the economy. Some feel that we will begin a recession over the next year, an...
  • Changing To Fit The Times? Changing To Fit The Times? Changing To Fit The Times? Introductions of new ideas into different cultures happens all the time. Some examples are in Africa people trying to introduce new technologies to the people there to improve the lives of the people there. Another example is how the McDonalds company is sprouting new franchises in countries all over the world. The idea of new technologies being introduced to people who need them is a wonderful idea, although the idea of a new restaurants may not be. In this paper I wi...
  • No title No title The Environment In Which Planning Processes Take Place May Have An Important Effect On How The Process Is Conducted The ubiquity of change social, economic, political, technological and attitudinaland the accelerated pace by which it is occurring demand a serious and imaginative response on the part of business if they want to thrive over the next several years, let alone the next decade or 100 years. Strategic planning is highly selective, sets priorities, and does not constitute a compreh...
  • Cloning Cloning Cloning Someone once said that if you give someone an inch they would take a foot. Biotechnologist would like to receive an inch of allowance from the government to start the cloning process here in the United States. The fear, however, that cloning may become too advanced is a relevant response. Cloning is the copying of genes, or DNA, of one organism to be used in the creation of an identical one. It is similar to genetic engineering, which is the manipulation of the genes. HOW IS CLONING DONE...
  • Bio-Technology Bio-Technology Bio-Technology The short-term future of biotechnology in production agriculture looks bleak. The unattractive truth is that economics, not science can play a larger role in the future of biotechnology. Currently, some of the largest biotech companies are losing money buying up smaller companies. This reduction in competition is good and bad for the biotech companies. They can and must raise their prices to the producers to cover the costs of buying the other companies, research and development. ...
  • Genetic Engineering, History and Future: Altering Genetic Engineering, History and Future: Altering Genetic Engineering, History and Future: Altering the Face of Science Genetic Engineering, History and Future: Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even e...