Biological Oceanography


Find More Biological Oceanography

Looking for essays on biological oceanography? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.

biological oceanography what effect has el nino had on seals and sea lions?

     El Nino, also called the "El Nino-Southern Oscillation" or ENSO, is a change in the ocean-atmosphere system in the eastern Pacific that occurs about every five to seven years.   It contributes to significant weather changes around the world, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.  Among these changes are increased rainfall across the southern region of the U.S. and in Peru and drought in the West Pacific, affecting Australia and its neighboring nations.    
    During El Nino, the winds at the equator blow from west to east in the Pacific.  These winds travel along the surface of the ocean and bring warm surface water heated by the tropical sun to the western coasts of North and South America.  Rainfall follows the warm water eastward, with associated flooding in Peru and drought in Indonesia and Australia.   A key indicator of El Nino is usually warm temperature along and on both sides of the equator in the central and eastern Pacific.
    The warming typically starts in the north during late spring or summer and builds to a peak at the end of the year.  The events are usually over by the following summer.  The changes in ocean temperatures affect the atmosphere.  The hot, humid air over the oceans fuels tropical thunderstorms.  The hotter the air, the stronger the thunderstorms.  As the warmest water spreads, the biggest thunderstorms follow, or move, with it. These thunderstorms pump warm air and humidity more than 50,000 feet into the air.   El Nino has had an impact on many nations around the world.  Some places got hit with heavy rains and floods, others faced drought, poor crops and starvation.  Many different species of fish migrated and coral reefs got damaged. Santiago, Chile has suffered from severe flooding from heavy rainfall and snow.  Drought conditions were felt in northeast Brazil, southeastern Africa, and the west Pacific.  Pakistan and northwest India were dry, and the normal monsoon rain was spotty in parts of India.  Southeastern Africa and northeastern Brazil experienced dry conditions, which reduced crops and resulted in starvation.  
    The warmer water temperatures caused many corals to be in water that exceeded their upper temperature limit.  When water temperatures rise too high, the corals are subject to bleaching, which often leads to their death.  The warmer waters also disrupted fish migrations worldwide.  Warm water fish such as tuna migrated to cooler water and were spotted off the California coast.  Tropical and temperate marine species pushed northward beyond their normal ranges in search of food.  The Peruvian fishing industry has suffered as the anchovy supply pushed south into cooler, Chilean waters.   Salmon, usually found off the Oregon and Washington coasts, were forced to swim into cooler Canadian waters.  The decreases in the marine food supply also led to the stranding of seals and sea lions along the West Coast.   The main point of this paper is to focus on those sea lions and seals and to show what changes El Nino brought to them.
    El Nino has had a great effect on seals and sea lions everywhere, causing many to die and emaciating those that survived.  Thousands died in South America alone.  At the height of the most recent El Nino, the Pacific Ocean surface temperatures near the Paracas Peninsula in Peru rose from the cool, normal range of 56 to 58 degrees Fahrenheit to 81 to 83 degrees Fahrenheit.  As a result, schools of anchovies and sardines migrated to cooler waters, following the plankton they feed on, and the sea lions of that area were forced to go

farther in search of food. Mother sea lions normally spend one to two days away from their pups searching for food to make milk to nourish the pups, but because they had to search
farther, they had to spend more than twice that time away from their pups.  Because of this, the pups either died of malnutrition or were close to dying of malnutrition.  Not only did the pups die from malnutrition from not being nourished from their mothers, but they were also malnourished because their mothers' milk was poor in nutrients from the lack of food.  Similar conditions were seen all ... more

biological oceanography

Research on Biological Oceanography

  1. Open Free Essay
    Launch Free Essay and search for "Biological Oceanography" to start researching.
  2. Find the perfect essay
    Choose from tons of different essay in various lengths, styles and themes. Find the perfect Biological Oceanography essay to find and customize for your brainstorming needs.
  3. Brainstorm ideas and themes
    Use the essays you found on Biological Oceanography and extract the ideas from them. Use those ideas for the basis of your own essay.
  4. Cite your essay
    Remember to cite any essays you used for your new essay.
Start a New Essay on Biological Oceanography

Find essay on Biological Oceanography

Chemosynthesis

Introduction

Synthesis is the process of producing a chemical compound usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds. For example, photosynthesis, the word photo means putting together with light. Photosynthesis is the process of converting sunlight into food for organic organisms such as plants. Photosynthesis is the basis of life for planet earth and without it; not only would we not be able to produce the fruits and vegetables that we consume, but the food to feed the animals that we eat. Plants absorb this sunlight which in turn makes oxygen in a process called respiration. This delicate cycle is what allows us to thrive on this planet. Although much of the life on this planet relies on photosynthesis in one way or another, there is another form of synthesis that is equally as important, chemosynthesis.
     The deep sea is considered the largest, yet, least-known habitat on earth and covers about two-thirds of the earth. Every year, and every dive down to the mysterious depths of the deep-sea bring scientist closer and closer to unraveling the secrets of the unimaginable deep. This is where chemosynthesis takes place because there is no sunlight available in order for photosynthesis to take place.








How hydrothermal vents work
In 1977, in the Galapagos Islands, the first hydrothermal vents were found. Using a submersible called the Alvin, scientist were able to explore this alien world never known to have existed for the first time. Hydrothermal vents are chimney like structures on the ocean floor that release extremely hot, mineral rich water. This process is called Hydrothermal Circulation. Ocean water seeps into the earth, becoming increasingly hotter as it descends downward. As the water passes through the cracks of the earth, it is becoming enriched with metals and minerals until finally turning to a very acidic fluid. When the super heated water reaches about 700˚F (400˚C), the fluid rises and bursts through cracks in the sea floor. The super heated water mixing with the cold sea water causes a chemical reaction and forms particles of metal sulfide to cloud the water. The pieces of metal settle around the area of the crack, and over time, collect to form the chimneys of black smokers. One would assume that at the very bottom of the ocean, in 700˚F waters, that nothing could possibly exist here. Surprisingly, over 300 strange and unique species thrive only in these conditions.

What lives near hydrothermal vents?
Although hydrothermal vent habitats would be considered a harsh habitat for life to thrive, oddly, a collection of animals live near hydrothermal vents. Animals living here have to deal with the high pressure, steep temperature gradients, and the extremely high concentrations of toxic elements such as sulfides and metals (Minic & Herve, 2003). Clams, mussels, crabs, and worms are found near hydrothermal vent locations (Grassle, 1985). Normally, deep sea soft bottoms are characterized by low population densities, high species diversity and low biomass. But, in the case of chemosynthetic hydrothermal vent communities, this is not true. Since there isn't anything on the sea floor, other than hydrothermal vents, the area surrounding a vent exhibit high densities and biomass, low species diversity, rapid growth, and high metabolic rates (Corselli & Basso, 1995).

How hydrothermal vent creatures survive
Earlier, photosynthesis; the production of food using light, was discussed. How do creatures who live in hydrothermal vent communities and other areas devoid of sunlight make food? They use a process called chemosynthesis. Chemo- means chemical, and as previously stated, synthesis means the process of producing a chemical compound usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds, thus, Chemosynthesis must mean the process of converting chemicals into food.
     In order for one to understand the chemosynthesis, you must know the why, where and how of it.
Why:
Animals found near hydrothermal vents have very few options for food. They either have the chemosynthetic bacteria to perform chemosynthesis, or they wait for some type of carcass to slowly drift to the bottom of the ocean. Without chemosynthesis, most animals near hydrothermal vents would not be able to live.

Where:
Chemosynthesis can only occur where there is lack of sunlight with the proper bacteria and chemicals needed to perform chemosynthesis.

How:
Chemosynthesis does not occur in the water near hydrothermal vents, it occurs within the actual ... more

biological oceanography

FAQ

What long should essays be?

Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.

What makes an effective essay?

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.

What should be included on an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

What They say About Free Essay

I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling

@Gusgustt

Browse Essays

  • B: El Ninos Wrath B: El Ninos Wrath El Ninos Wrath El Nino\'s Wrath Microscopic, photosynthetic phytoplankton produce seventy one percent of the world\'s Oxygen. A reduction in the world\'s phytoplankton population would be detrimental to all terrestrial and aquatic life. The event known as El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a complex interplay between the ocean and the atmosphere causing a reversal in the trade winds, which in turn moves warm water masses to opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean. Better known for it\'s atmosphe...
  • I: What effect has el nino had on seals and sea lions I: What effect has el nino had on seals and sea lions what effect has el nino had on seals and sea lions El Nino, also called the El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO, is a change in the ocean-atmosphere system in the eastern Pacific that occurs about every five to seven years. It contributes to significant weather changes around the world, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Among these changes are increased rainfall across the southern region of the U.S. and in Peru and drought in the West Pacific, affecting Austra...
  • O: Chemosynthesis O: Chemosynthesis Chemosynthesis Introduction Synthesis is the process of producing a chemical compound usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds. For example, photosynthesis, the word photo means putting together with light. Photosynthesis is the process of converting sunlight into food for organic organisms such as plants. Photosynthesis is the basis of life for planet earth and without it; not only would we not be able to produce the fruits and vegetables that we consume, but the food to feed the anim...
  • L: The ocean and its priperties L: The ocean and its priperties the ocean and its priperties The oceans are said to be the source of life. The enormous, blue, calm oceans are the signatures of the planet earth. They cover nearly three-fourths of the surface of the earth. This is equal to 71 percent of the earths entire surface or about 361 million sq km (140 million sq mi). Its average depth is 5000 m (16,000 ft), and its total volume is about 1,347,000,000 cu km (322,300,000 cu mi). This includes the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. These oceans are...
  • O: Seldom has a single discovery in chemistry had su O: Seldom has a single discovery in chemistry had su Seldom has a single discovery in chemistry had such a impact on the thinking of so many fields of human endeavor. Seldom has a single discovery generated such wide public interest. From Taylor, 1987 The radiocarbon dating process was developed by physicist Willard F. Libby (please see photo) in 1948 with the help of two scientists, Dr. E.C. Anderson and Dr. James R. Arnold. Libby was born on December 17, 1908 in Grand Valley, Colorado. He taught at the University of California-Berkeley from 19...
  • G: Nature of the work G: Nature of the work Nature of the work Nature of the Work Biological Scientists Nature of the Work Biological scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area such as ornithology (the study of birds) or microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms). About two-fifths of all biological scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to increase knowledge of living organisms. Others, in applied research, use knowledge provided by b...
  • I: Christianity in a Postmodern World I: Christianity in a Postmodern World Christianity in a Postmodern World Christian Belief in a Postmodern World: The Full Wealth of Conviction Others have tried to do what Diogenes Allen, Professor of Philosophy at Princeton Theological Seminary, does in his book but none with his breadth or effectiveness. That is, others have attempted to exploit for theism\'s benefit the hard times now befalling the modern world\'s emphasis on scientific reasoning and pure rationality, which for quite a while had placed Christianity (and religious...
  • C: Rachel Carson Through The Years C: Rachel Carson Through The Years Rachel Carson Through The Years Rachel Carson Rachel Carson is considered one of America\'s finest science and nature writers. She is best known for her 1962 book, Silent Spring, which is often credited with beginning the environmental movement in the United States. The book focussed on the uncontrolled and often indiscriminate use of pesticides, especially dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (commonly known as DDT), and the irreparable environmental damage caused by these chemicals. The public outc...
  • A: Shamu has a number of options for a new home.... A: Shamu has a number of options for a new home.... Shamu has a number of options for a new home.... -Corpus Christi, Texas -Norfolk, Virginia -Savannah, Georgia -Jacksonville, Florida The one that suits Shamu the most would have to be Savannah, Georgia. Savannah is located along the Atlantic coastal plain at 31 N latitude and 81 W Longitude. The city is surrounded by spectacular wetland marshes to the north and east and has wide sandy beaches on Tybee Island. Dozens of rivers and creeks crisscross Savannah's coast, offering spectacular vantage...
  • L: Oceanography L: Oceanography Oceanography The sea is the most obvious feature of the earth's surface. Approximately seventy percent of this surface is covered by water, in one way or another. Beneath this water are the familiar sands of the beaches, bottoms of bays, and the inshore ocean. Farther offshore this water covers an amazing submarine topography of underwater canyons, trenches, mountains, and plains. Unlike the continents, which are physically separated from one another, the oceans are continuous and interconnected...
  •  : Ocean Environment : Ocean Environment Ocean Environment Ocean Environment The sea is the most obvious feature of the earth's surface. Approximately seventy percent of this surface is covered by water, in one way or another. Beneath this water are the familiar sands of the beaches, bottoms of bays, and the inshore ocean. Farther offshore this water covers an amazing submarine topography of underwater canyons, trenches, mountains, and plains. Unlike the continents, which are physically separated from one another, the oceans are contin...
  • O: The sea is the most obvious feature of the earths O: The sea is the most obvious feature of the earths The sea is the most obvious feature of the earth\'s surface. Approximately seventy percent of this surface is covered by water, in one way or another. Beneath this water are the familiar sands of the beaches, bottoms of bays, and the inshore ocean. Farther offshore this water covers an amazing submarine topography of underwater canyons, trenches, mountains, and plains. Unlike the continents, which are physically separated from one another, the oceans are continuous and interconnected. Since the ...
  • C: St.-Andre-de-Cubzac is parallel to the Dordogne ri C: St.-Andre-de-Cubzac is parallel to the Dordogne ri St.-Andre-de-Cubzac is parallel to the Dordogne river in Bordeaux, France. Bordeaux was a small town based on wineries and surrounded by vineyards. Here lived a successful businessman who sold real estate, deeds, and marriage contracts. He had four sons in which one became a businessman, like his father. This sons name was Daniel Cousteau. Daniel was a prominent businessman who liked to invent and play sports. Daniel was married to Elizabeth and she gave him two sons, one Phillipe and one Jacqu...
  • E: Nature of the work E: Nature of the work Nature of the work Nature of the Work Biological Scientists Nature of the Work Biological scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area such as ornithology (the study of birds) or microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms). About two-fifths of all biological scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to increase knowledge of living organisms. Others, in applied research, use knowledge provided by b...
  • A: Ocean Environment A: Ocean Environment Ocean Environment The sea is the most obvious feature of the earth's surface. Approximately seventy percent of this surface is covered by water, in one way or another. Beneath this water are the familiar sands of the beaches, bottoms of bays, and the inshore ocean. Farther offshore this water covers an amazing submarine topography of underwater canyons, trenches, mountains, and plains. Unlike the continents, which are physically separated from one another, the oceans are continuous and interconn...
  • N: Ocean Environment N: Ocean Environment Ocean Environment Ocean Environment The sea is the most obvious feature of the earth\'s surface. Approximately seventy percent of this surface is covered by water, in one way or another. Beneath this water are the familiar sands of the beaches, bottoms of bays, and the inshore ocean. Farther offshore this water covers an amazing submarine topography of underwater canyons, trenches, mountains, and plains. Unlike the continents, which are physically separated from one another, the oceans are conti...
  • O: Rachel Carson Through the Years O: Rachel Carson Through the Years Rachel Carson Through the Years Rachel Carson is considered one of America\'s finest science and nature writers. She is best known for her 1962 book, Silent Spring, which is often credited with beginning the environmental movement in the United States. The book focussed on the uncontrolled and often indiscriminate use of pesticides, especially dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (commonly known as DDT), and the irreparable environmental damage caused by these chemicals. The public outcry Carson gene...
  • G: Ocean Environment G: Ocean Environment Ocean Environment Ocean Environment The sea is the most obvious feature of the earth\'s surface. Approximately seventy percent of this surface is covered by water, in one way or another. Beneath this water are the familiar sands of the beaches, bottoms of bays, and the inshore ocean. Farther offshore this water covers an amazing submarine topography of underwater canyons, trenches, mountains, and plains. Unlike the continents, which are physically separated from one another, the oceans are conti...
  • R: El Ninos Wrath R: El Ninos Wrath El Ninos Wrath El Nino\'s Wrath Microscopic, photosynthetic phytoplankton produce seventy one percent of the world\'s Oxygen. A reduction in the world\'s phytoplankton population would be detrimental to all terrestrial and aquatic life. The event known as El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a complex interplay between the ocean and the atmosphere causing a reversal in the trade winds, which in turn moves warm water masses to opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean. Better known for it\'s atmosphe...
  • A: What effect has el nino had on seals and sea lions A: What effect has el nino had on seals and sea lions what effect has el nino had on seals and sea lions El Nino, also called the El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO, is a change in the ocean-atmosphere system in the eastern Pacific that occurs about every five to seven years. It contributes to significant weather changes around the world, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Among these changes are increased rainfall across the southern region of the U.S. and in Peru and drought in the West Pacific, affecting Austra...
  • P: Chemosynthesis P: Chemosynthesis Chemosynthesis Introduction Synthesis is the process of producing a chemical compound usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds. For example, photosynthesis, the word photo means putting together with light. Photosynthesis is the process of converting sunlight into food for organic organisms such as plants. Photosynthesis is the basis of life for planet earth and without it; not only would we not be able to produce the fruits and vegetables that we consume, but the food to feed the anim...
  • H: The ocean and its priperties H: The ocean and its priperties the ocean and its priperties The oceans are said to be the source of life. The enormous, blue, calm oceans are the signatures of the planet earth. They cover nearly three-fourths of the surface of the earth. This is equal to 71 percent of the earths entire surface or about 361 million sq km (140 million sq mi). Its average depth is 5000 m (16,000 ft), and its total volume is about 1,347,000,000 cu km (322,300,000 cu mi). This includes the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. These oceans are...
  • Y: Seldom has a single discovery in chemistry had su Y: Seldom has a single discovery in chemistry had su Seldom has a single discovery in chemistry had such a impact on the thinking of so many fields of human endeavor. Seldom has a single discovery generated such wide public interest. From Taylor, 1987 The radiocarbon dating process was developed by physicist Willard F. Libby (please see photo) in 1948 with the help of two scientists, Dr. E.C. Anderson and Dr. James R. Arnold. Libby was born on December 17, 1908 in Grand Valley, Colorado. He taught at the University of California-Berkeley from 19...
  • Nature of the work Nature of the work Nature of the work Nature of the Work Biological Scientists Nature of the Work Biological scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area such as ornithology (the study of birds) or microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms). About two-fifths of all biological scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to increase knowledge of living organisms. Others, in applied research, use knowledge provided by b...
  • Christianity in a Postmodern World Christianity in a Postmodern World Christianity in a Postmodern World Christian Belief in a Postmodern World: The Full Wealth of Conviction Others have tried to do what Diogenes Allen, Professor of Philosophy at Princeton Theological Seminary, does in his book but none with his breadth or effectiveness. That is, others have attempted to exploit for theism\'s benefit the hard times now befalling the modern world\'s emphasis on scientific reasoning and pure rationality, which for quite a while had placed Christianity (and religious...