Behavior Modification Therapy


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behavior modification therapy Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive V Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (henceforth OCD) is an anxiety related disorders and is a potentially disabling condition that can persist throughout a persons life. The key features of OCD are obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions can be defined as persistent ideas, thoughts impulses or images that are experienced as inappropriate and intrusive. This then causes the person high levels of anxiety and distress. Compulsion on the other hand, Are repetitive behaviors like hand washing, ordering and checking. The reason for doing this is to prevent or to reduce the anxiety or distress felt.

The cause of OCD is no longer solely attributed to the attitudes the patient learnt as a child. The search for cause now focuses on the interaction of neuro-biological factors and environmental influences and cognitive processes.

It has been fond that OCD affects 1 to 2 % of the population in Malaysia and the United States. It cuts across all ethnic groups and effects both males and females. The onset of OCD is earlier in males i.e. between 6 to 15 years of age while the disorder affects females in the age range of 20 to 29.

Bob saw his psychiatrist for treatment of depression for six months before he finally had the courage to bring up his other secret problem. Since childhood he had a compulsion to count things. He had to count the letters in words and in peoples names. If the letters added up to any number except 9, he felt a sense of release and could stop counting. He knew it was silly but nevertheless he had a fear that if he did not do this, something bad could happen to his mom or dad. He seemed unable to stop doing this. He did poorly in school because he was distracted by his secret compulsion to count letters when he should be paying attention to the teachers lessons. He was later bothered as a teenager by upsetting sacrilegious mental images when he was in church. Having these sacrilegious images made him feel that he had lost his souls for eternity.

In addition to these two problems, he was having trouble driving. When he felt a bump as his tire rolled over a little stone, he would think that he may have accidentally run over a pedestrian. He would instantly check his rearview mirror for the injured person he feared was lying on the road. Relived to not see an injured person, he would start driving forward. Obsessing that the injured person might have been flung entirely off the road by the impact, he would then stop, and back up his car to the scene, and search the ditch and the weeds. These obsessions and compulsions were taking over his life but he was too embarrassed to tell anyone about them, even his psychiatrist, up till now. (Internet 1)

OCD is an anxiety related disorder and is a potentially disabling condition that can persist throughout a persons life. An individual who suffers from OCD becomes trapped in a pattern of repetitive thoughts and behaviors that are senseless and distressing but are extremely difficult to overcome. OCD occurs on a continuum from mild to severe. At the severe continuum, if left untreated, it can destroy a persons capacity to function at work, at school or even at home.

What is OCD ?

The key features of OCD are obsessions and compulsions as stated in DSMIV. Obsessions are persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses or images that are experienced as inappropriate and intrusive and that cause a high level of anxiety or distress. The individual is unable to control the content of his/her obsession which, the individual feels is not the kind of thought that he/she would expect to have. However, the individual is able to recognize that the obsessions are a product of his/her own mind.

The most common obsession are:-

h repeated thoughts about contamination (becoming contaminated by shaking hands)
h repeated doubts (wondering whether one has hurt someone in a traffic accident or having left the door unlocked)
h  a need to have things in a particular order, aggressive or horrific impulses (to hurt ones child)
h  sexual imagery (recurrent pornographic ... more

behavior modification therapy

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SIGMUND FREUD

THE FATHER OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and died in 1939.  He was a successful psysiologist, medical doctor, and  psychologist.  He was recognized as one of the most influential and respected thinkers of the twentieth century.  He originally worked in close association with Joseph Bruer, and created the theory of psychology.  He refined teh concept of the unconscious, of infatile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind's structure, all as a part of a dramaticallynew conceptual and therapeutic frame of reference for the understanding of human psychological development of psychoanalysis as it exists today, it can in almost all fundamental respects be traced directly back to Freud's original work.  Further, Freud's innowative treatment of human actions, dreams and indeed of cultural artefacts as invariably possessing implicit symbolic significance has proven to be extordinarily fecund, and has had massive implications for a wide variety of fields, including anthropology, semiotics, and artistic creativity and appreciation in addition of psychology.  However, Freud's most important and frequently re-interated claim, that with psychoanalysis he had inventeed a new science of the mind, remains the subject of much critical debate and controversy.

Life
Freud was born in Frieberg, Moravia in 1856, but when he was four years old his family moved to Vienna, where Freud was to live and work until the last year of his life.  In 1937 the Nazis annexed Austria, and Freud who was jewish, was allowed to leave for England.  For these reasons, it was above all with teh city of Vienna that Freud's name was destined to be deeply associated for posterity, founding as he did what was to become known as the first Viennese school of psychoanalysis from which, it is fair to say, psychoanalysis as a movement and all about subsequent developments in this field flowed.  The scope of Freud's interests, and of his professional training was very broad.  He always considered himself first and foremost a scientist, endeavouring to extend the compass of human knowledge, and to this end (rather than to the practice of medicine) he enrolled at the medical school at the Universtity of Vienna in 1873.  He concentrated initially on biology, doing research in physiology for six years under the great German scientist Ernst Brucke, who was director of the Physiology Laboratory at the University, thereafter specialising in nerology.  He recieved his medical degree in 1881, and having  become engaged to be married in 1882, he rather reluctantly took up more secure and financially rewarding work as a doctor at Vienna General Hospital.  Shortly after his marriage in 1886- which was extremely happy, and gave Freud set up a private practice in the treatment of psychological disorders, which gave him much of the clinical material on which he based his theories and his pioneering techniques.
In 1885-86 Freud spent the greater part of a year in Paris, where he was deeply impressed by the work of the French neurologist Jean Charcot, who was at the time using hypnotism to treat hysteria and other abnormal mental conditions.  When he returned to Vienna, Freud experrimented with hypnosis, but found that its beneficial effects did not last.  At this point he decided to adopt instead a method suggested by the work of an older Viennese colleague and friend, Josef Breur, who had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to talk to uninhibitedly about the earliest occurences of the symptoms, the latter sometimes gradually abated.  Working with Breur, Freud formulated and developed the idea that many neuroses (phobias, hysterical paralyses and pains, some forms of paranoia, etc.) had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences which had occured in the past life of the patien t but which were now forgotten, hidden from consciousnessm; the treatment was to enable the patient to recall the experience to consciousness, to confront it in a deep way both intellectually and emotionally, and in thus discharging it, to remove the underlying psychological causes of the neurotic symptoms.  This technique, and the theory from  which it is derived, was given its classical expression in Studies in Hysteria, jointly published by Freud and Breuer in 1895.
Shortly thereafter, however, Breuer, Found that he could not agree with what he regarded as ... more

behavior modification therapy

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