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The Roman Empire
The people were happy. This is the underlying cause of the astounding length of time and space that the Roman Empire occupied most of the known western land. Great rulers met their downfall when they put their own status in front of the well being of the people they govern. When the citizens are left high and dry and not regarded as important to their society then this is when there is an overthrow of power and a new ruler comes into play. Citizens had a place in politics, they have lots of entertainment, they had the best army in the world to protect them, and Rome was the place to live and would be that way for many years.
Many leaders come and go but it is the great ones that we remember, the ones that make people enjoy life. The emperors that are not approved by the people are the ones that turn a new leaf of evil once they have a military victory. The thrill of so much power gives them the urge to be the best in the world. They move on and conquer other nations and forget about their own people. Julius Caesar cared about his people and wanted to be the "ruler for the people," rather than the "ruler of the people." When he gain power of Rome from the hands of Pompey there was no reign of terror, but a policy to restore economic and prosperity to Rome. This period of time in Rome is known today as the golden age of Roman literacy and development. The minds of the people are expanding. Another example of the Roman citizens' happiness and prosperity comes during the rule of Caesar's grandson Octavian, better known to history as Augustus.
Once Augustus rises from the new triumvirate as the ruler of the empire, he introduces different types of social reform that appease the people and keep them on his side. Augustus is a classical man and wanted to bring back the ancient moral to the citizens. He reduced the size of the army and gave soldiers land and money. He imports food and gives it away to the people. Augustus transformed Rome from city of bricks to a city of marble by building temples and basilicas to represent his power as well as his love for the city that he takes care of. At this time people could see that society was prospering and times were great due to a great leader.
Shortly after the rule of Augustus the Colosseum is built under the rule of Vespasian and Titus, completed in 80A.D. The colosseum creates entertainment among the Roman citizens, which keeps them occupied for hundreds of years. The events at the colosseum captivate as well as surprise the citizens. They have never before seen anything like this. Everything from foreign beasts fighting criminals to naval battles on the flooded base of the giant structure. The Roman people became obsessed with this social activity that brought the whole city together. In the third century Emperor Caracalla extended Roman citizenship to every free person who lived in the within the empire. This status symbol could allow one to travel to the far reaches of the land without being harmed by foreign persons. These events in Roman history keep the people's moral high and their patriotism very strong, along with the protection of their superior army.
The Roman army was in charge of keeping the peace in the different nations taken over by Roman emperors. They formed strongholds at the borders of the empire to secure the citizens and keep them safe. Augustus' was a prime commander-in-chief. His
army consisted of 150,000 soldiers and roughly 130,000 auxiliary officers who were all noncitizens. After serving for twenty-four years they would receive citizenship. This imperial army would only grow in size over the next few centuries. Under Trajan the army had grown to about 400,000 soldiers. The army's ability to move across the empire made romanizing of the foreign nations easy. The army kept the empire secure from threatening outside nations and also brought the moral of the citizens to a high point. They were safe from invasion and safe ... more
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The Great Wall of China
To the northwest and north of Beijing, a huge, serrated wall zigzags it's way to the east and west along the undulating mountains. This is the Great Wall, which is said to be visible from the moon. This massive wall has not only been one of the Ancient Seven Wonders of the World, but it has also been inspiration for many artists, and writers. The building of the Great Wall is one of the biggest tragedy?s, but through this tragedy arose triumph with the wall, being so much to so many people. The Great Wall of China is much more than a wall, and was built for many reasons that are hidden to most.
Construction of the Great Wall started in the 7th century B.C. The wall states that under the Zhou Dynasty in the northern parts of the country each built their own walls for defense purposes. After the state of Qin unified China in 221 B.C., it joined the walls to hold off the invaders from the Xiongnu tribes in the north and extended them to more than 10,000 li or 5,000 kilometers. This is the origin of the name of the "10,000-li Great Wall". (Karls, Robert 10,000-li Great Wall)
To understand everything about the Great Wall it is necessary to know the many components of the wall, and their purposes. The Great Wall was renovated
from time to time after the Qin Dynasty. A major renovation started with the founding of the Ming Dynasty in 1368, and took 200 years to complete. The wall
we see today is almost exactly the result of this effort. With a total length of over 6,000 kilometers, it extends to the jiayu Pass in Gansu Province in the west and to the mouth of the Yalu River in Liaoning Province in the east. What lies north of Beijing is but a small section of it. (Karls)
The Badaling section of the Great Wall snaking along the mountains northwest of Beijing was built at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty in the 14th century. Being 7.8 meters high and 5.8 meters wide at the top on the average, it has battle forts at important points, including the corners. (Karls)
Located 10 kilometers south of the Badaling section of the Great Wall and built in an 18.5-kilometre-long valley, the pass has always been an important gateway northwest of Beijing. The name is believed to have its origin in the workers and slaves conscripted to build the Great Wall in ancient times. Cloud Terrace, built in 1345, was originally the base of a pagoda over looking the main road of the town of the pass. The arched gate of the terrace and the walls inside the arch are decorated with carvings. Of elephants, lions, birds, flower and heavenly kings as well as charms in six languages-Sanskrit, Tibetan, Phats pa (Mongolian), Uygur, West Xia and Han. (Karls)
The Mutianyu section of the Great Wall, 70 kilometers northeast of Beijing, is linked to the Gubeikou section on the east and the Badaling section on the
west. The Mutianyu section of the Great Wall is crenellated for watching and shooting at the invading enemy. Some of the battle forts on the wall are as close
as 50 meters apart. It is one of the best sections of the Great Wall. (Karls)
Located in Miyun County northeast of Beijing, the Jinshanling division of the Great Wall, like the Simatai division, belongs to the Gubeikou section of the colossal defence barrier. The battlements in the Jinshanling division of the Great Wall are built along the ridge of a mountain, where the soldiers can resist the invading enemy by taking advantage of the high terrain. (Karls)
Located to the east of Jinshanling, the Simatai division of the Great Wall is 3,000 meters long and has 35 battle forts. The wall rises and falls with the precipitous mountain ridge, while the battle forts are located high up the hills.
From the Beakon Tower alarm was raised by means of smoke signals, at night by fire. Smoke was produced by burning a mixture of wolf dung, sulfur and saltpeter. Shots were fired at the same time. Thus an alarm could be relayed ... more
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