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The Great Wall of China
To the northwest and north of Beijing, a huge, serrated wall zigzags it's way to the east and west along the undulating mountains. This is the Great Wall, which is said to be visible from the moon. This massive wall has not only been one of the Ancient Seven Wonders of the World, but it has also been inspiration for many artists, and writers. The building of the Great Wall is one of the biggest tragedy?s, but through this tragedy arose triumph with the wall, being so much to so many people. The Great Wall of China is much more than a wall, and was built for many reasons that are hidden to most.
Construction of the Great Wall started in the 7th century B.C. The wall states that under the Zhou Dynasty in the northern parts of the country each built their own walls for defense purposes. After the state of Qin unified China in 221 B.C., it joined the walls to hold off the invaders from the Xiongnu tribes in the north and extended them to more than 10,000 li or 5,000 kilometers. This is the origin of the name of the "10,000-li Great Wall". (Karls, Robert 10,000-li Great Wall)
To understand everything about the Great Wall it is necessary to know the many components of the wall, and their purposes. The Great Wall was renovated
from time to time after the Qin Dynasty. A major renovation started with the founding of the Ming Dynasty in 1368, and took 200 years to complete. The wall
we see today is almost exactly the result of this effort. With a total length of over 6,000 kilometers, it extends to the jiayu Pass in Gansu Province in the west and to the mouth of the Yalu River in Liaoning Province in the east. What lies north of Beijing is but a small section of it. (Karls)
The Badaling section of the Great Wall snaking along the mountains northwest of Beijing was built at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty in the 14th century. Being 7.8 meters high and 5.8 meters wide at the top on the average, it has battle forts at important points, including the corners. (Karls)
Located 10 kilometers south of the Badaling section of the Great Wall and built in an 18.5-kilometre-long valley, the pass has always been an important gateway northwest of Beijing. The name is believed to have its origin in the workers and slaves conscripted to build the Great Wall in ancient times. Cloud Terrace, built in 1345, was originally the base of a pagoda over looking the main road of the town of the pass. The arched gate of the terrace and the walls inside the arch are decorated with carvings. Of elephants, lions, birds, flower and heavenly kings as well as charms in six languages-Sanskrit, Tibetan, Phats pa (Mongolian), Uygur, West Xia and Han. (Karls)
The Mutianyu section of the Great Wall, 70 kilometers northeast of Beijing, is linked to the Gubeikou section on the east and the Badaling section on the
west. The Mutianyu section of the Great Wall is crenellated for watching and shooting at the invading enemy. Some of the battle forts on the wall are as close
as 50 meters apart. It is one of the best sections of the Great Wall. (Karls)
Located in Miyun County northeast of Beijing, the Jinshanling division of the Great Wall, like the Simatai division, belongs to the Gubeikou section of the colossal defence barrier. The battlements in the Jinshanling division of the Great Wall are built along the ridge of a mountain, where the soldiers can resist the invading enemy by taking advantage of the high terrain. (Karls)
Located to the east of Jinshanling, the Simatai division of the Great Wall is 3,000 meters long and has 35 battle forts. The wall rises and falls with the precipitous mountain ridge, while the battle forts are located high up the hills.
From the Beakon Tower alarm was raised by means of smoke signals, at night by fire. Smoke was produced by burning a mixture of wolf dung, sulfur and saltpeter. Shots were fired at the same time. Thus an alarm could be relayed ... more
Find essay on Bank Of The United
Today, telecommunications technology affects lives to a greater degree than ever
before. Communication has evolved over many years from the earliest attempts at
verbal communication to the use of sophisticated technology to enhance the
ability to communicate effectively with others. Every time a telephone call is
made, a television is watched, or a personal computer is used, benefits of
telecommunication technologies are being received. The concept of
telecommunications may be defined as the transmission of information from one
location to another by electronic means. Telecommunications is using electronic
systems to communicate. Life is changing constantly and has been changing faster
since the rapid advancements in telecommunication. Because of continuing
attempts to find better and more efficient ways to communicate, the process of
communication has steadily improved. Many of these improvements were made
without the use of electronic technology. Human beings earliest attempts at
communication were through nonverbal means such as facial expressions and
gesturing. The use of these nonverbal signs, prehistoric people were able to
communicate emotions such as fear, anger, and happiness. More specific motions,
such as pointing, allowed them to convey more information . Verbal communication
probably started with a series of disorganized but meaningful sounds (grunts and
snarls). These sounds slowly developed into a system of organized, spoken
language that truly allowed humans to share information (Croal 59). Writing,
which is the use of symbols to represent language, began with early cave
drawings, progressed to picture writings such as hieroglyphics, and finally
evolved into the handwritten language we use today (Croal 61). As civilization
developed, people found it necessary to communicate their ideas to one another
over greater distances. The earliest method of transporting information was to
carry it from place to place; but as the development of commerce made speed an
essential part, greater effort was expended to increase the rate at which ideas
were transmitted (Croal62). The search for rapid transport of information led to
the formation of the pony express in 1860 (Cozic 77). Although the pony express
required several weeks to carry mail from the East Coast to the West Coast, it
was a vast improvement over the earlier methods. The pony express was not the
only time humans teamed up with animals to attempt to improve communications.
Dogs and pigeons were used to carry messages, especially during wartime . Most,
if not all, of the early forms of communication had two significant problems.
Both the speed at which information could be effectively communicated and the
distance over which information could be sent were severely limited. With the
advancements in forms of electronic communication, these problems were solved.
It was even before the pony express that a true technological breakthrough was
made. In 1844, the first electronic transmission occurred when Samuel Morse
developed a system of dots and dashes to symbolize letters of the alphabet. A
transmission device called the telegraph was used to send the coded signals over
wires. The telegraph was to become the primary method of reliable and rapid
communication during the American Civil War . It took quite a few years to link
the major cities of America by telegraph wires, but by 1861 the pony express was
replaced . Telegraphic communication became a major part of Americas business
and military history. One of the early telegraph companies, Western Union,
became the dominant carrier. Today, Western Union, through the use of modern
technology, transmits information twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.
Actual voice communication over distance finally became possible in 1876 when
Alexander Graham Bell held the first telephone conversation with his assistant,
Thomas Watson . This alternative to written communication rapidly helped the
telephone become the worlds most important communication tool. By 1866 the
first successful attempt to link Europe and America by undersea cable had been
accomplished. This cable was capable of carrying telegraph data only . The
telephone today remains a vital tool, and like the telegraph, the telephone is
constantly being improved by modern technology . By 1900, the goal of
communication technologists was to find a method of transmitting messages over
long distances without the need for wires. That dream became reality in 1901
when Gugliellmo Marconi and two assistants stood on a hill in Newfoundland and
listened carefully to their receiver. Faintly they heard the Morse code
dot-dot-dot, the letter s. the signal had traveled 1,700 miles from
Cornwall, England, and it represented the first successful wireless
transmission. This success led Marconi to form Marconi Wireless Telegraphy
Company. It was not until the Titanic disaster in 1912, however, that wireless
transmissions became commercially profitable. As ... more
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B: Israel Past & Present
Israel Past & Present Israel Past & Present After World War II, Jewish refugees moved to Palestine to escape the countries which had persecuted them for years. The Israelis met conflict while re-settling in Palestine. The Palestinians felt as though the Israelis were unjustly staking claims on Palestinian lands. The Israelis felt as though they had rights bestowed by God to Palestinian lands. Israelis also argued the fact that the Palestinians as a group never really had a homeland. These confli...
A: Great Wall
Great Wall The Great Wall of China To the northwest and north of Beijing, a huge, serrated wall zigzags it's way to the east and west along the undulating mountains. This is the Great Wall, which is said to be visible from the moon. This massive wall has not only been one of the Ancient Seven Wonders of the World, but it has also been inspiration for many artists, and writers. The building of the Great Wall is one of the biggest tragedy?s, but through this tragedy arose triumph with the wall, be...
N: Telecommunications Advances
Telecommunications Advances Today, telecommunications technology affects lives to a greater degree than ever before. Communication has evolved over many years from the earliest attempts at verbal communication to the use of sophisticated technology to enhance the ability to communicate effectively with others. Every time a telephone call is made, a television is watched, or a personal computer is used, benefits of telecommunication technologies are being received. The concept of telecommunicatio...
K: Battle of vicksburg
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: Facts that lead to poverty: th
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: Education in America
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U: The Clinton Sex Scandal
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I: Alexander The Great
Alexander The Great Introduction Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia, then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably either July 20 or 26, 356 B.C. Alexander was considered a child from his birth until 341 B.C. His princehood lasted from 340 to 336 B.C. In 336 B.C. Philip II, his father, was assassinated, thus making Alexander king. Alexander became a...
T: Computer Crimes
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