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austria hungary Causes of the Franco-Russian alliance

During the late 19th century many countries sought an alliance with other countries to guarantee their own safety, preserve peace and sometimes to help their economic position. this is highlighted by alliances and treaties such as the "Dual Alliance" of 1879, the "Dreikaiserbund" of 1881 and the "Reinsurance Treaty" This was also the case for both France and Russia, with them agreeing the "Franco-Russian Military Convention" on August 18th 1892 and later agreeing the "Franco-Russian Alliance" in 1893. France and Russia were animated by a common desire to preserve peace. The only reason it was possible for France and Russia to form this alliance is because Germany allowed the Reinsurance treaty to become invalid. Both countries wanted different things from the alliance but there was one common reason between them, and that was to oppose Germany - although both countries had different incentives for this. France, Russia and Germany all contributed to the alliance being formed, either through their aims or what they did.

France aimed to get revenge on Germany for the Franco - Prussian war of 1970 - 1971 where France were disastrously defeated, Germany aimed to stay free from an invasion from France and keep Austria-Hungary happy as France and Austria- Hungary were on either side of German, and Russia wanted an ally so it could feel safe form Germany.

France made an alliance with Russia because it was against Germany. France wanted Revenge on Germany because of the humiliation of losing the Franco-Prussian war and the valuable land lost, like "Alsace - Lorraine". They wanted revenge and this widely known. France knew that "without Russia's help, the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871, in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine could never be repaired", so it was important France allied with a relatively strong power. Karl Marx said "If Alsace - Lorraine is taken, then France will later make war with Germany in conjunction with France".

France needed an ally because she felt extremely vulnerable, this was mainly due to Bismarck and Germany. Bismarck had been successful in isolating France diplomatically over the previous decade, so she needed to catch up with the other major powers. France couldn't ally with Britain because Britain kept itself in "splendid isolation", so Russia was really the only real choice as they were the only other great power who was suspicious and disliked Germany.

France feared Germany, Germany had a preponderant military, so to counterbalance the German - British alliance, France agreed the Franco-Russian alliance. They had to try and make sure the disastrous defeat of the "Franco - Prussian war" wasn't repeated, so making an alliance with a country as powerful and with such a good geographical position, for an attack on Germany, would inevitable almost guarantee their safety. If Germany started a war with France they would have to fight on two fronts as Russia and France were on either side of Germany, which would stretch resources immenseley

Russia also feared Germany's dominance so seeked an Alliance to reduce the chance of being attacked. After the Reinsurance treaty had expired in 1890 Russia wanted to turn to another country who had strained relations with Germany, and also after the renewal of the "Triple alliance" (of Germany, Austria and Italy) it prompted serious consideration from Russia about her isolated position, so she turned to France. Russia couldn't form an alliance with Britain, because Britain didn't want to make an Alliance at this time and they kept themselves isolated.

Russia saw an Alliance with France as a very attractive prospect. This is because even before the alliance was formed, France had lent Russia considerable sums of money so Russia could build up their army and France had given Russia military assistance in weapons procurement, so now an alliance was formed, it would almost ensure that France would continue investing capital into Russia and helping with arms development. During the 1880's Russia was borrowing up to 2 million francs every year from the French, so an alliance would hopefully secure the very important financial support needed by the very backward Russian economy at that time.

Russia also seeked an anti - German alliance because Russia was unhappy with the way in which Germany ... more

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youth

Lectures: 17.04.03
Lecture One
Theoretical perspectives: early beginnings to present day
Lecture Two
Feminist challenges to youth and trouble: focus on teenage pregnancy and crime
The academic literature on 'delinquent youth arises in part from official concern over young peoples activities outside direct adult supervision by parents, teachers or employers.
Griffin, C. (1993) Representations of Youth: The Study of
Adolescence in Britain and America, Cambridge: Polity
Press.
and:
A set of concerns about the activities of young people and their supervision by
institutions or individuals representing the social order.
Johnston, L. (1993:96) The Modern Girl: Girlhood and Growing Up, Sydney: Allen & Unwin
Youth and trouble: theoretical perspectives
Biological determinism
Psychological theories
Sociological theories
Blumers symbolic interactionism rests on three premises:
humans act towards things on the basis of meanings that the things have for them
the meaning of things is derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with ones fellows
these meanings are handled in and modified through an interpretative process used by the person in dealing with the things he encounters.
Hester & Eglin, 1992.
In relation to criminal behaviour, symbolic interactionists concentrate on processes of social interaction in which:
certain behaviour is prohibited by law, i.e. the process of crime definition through legislation
certain acts and persons become subject to law enforcement, i.e. the process of crime selection by the police
certain acts and persons become fitted with the label 'criminal i.e. the process of crime interpretation by the courts
criminal identity is developed, maintained and transformed (e.g.notion of careers).
Labelling theorists interpret deviance not as a set of characteristics of individuals or groups, but as a process of interaction between deviants and non-deviants.
Giddens, 1997: 178
Deviance is not the quality of the act a person commits but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an offender. The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been applied; deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label.
Becker, 1963:9
Critique of labelling theory
Some acts are intrinsically wrong, such as murder.
There are differences e.g. people from a deprived background may shoplift more than rich people; although deviant behaviour may increase after conviction, there may be other prior explanations for this.
Labelling theory did not fully explain how what came to be seen as deviant was defined the questions whose definitions, whose interests and why were not explored.
Mainstream vs radical
The mainstream perspective is positivist, empiricist and conservative, presenting itself as an apolitical and objective project. It is characterized by the tendency to investigate young people as both the source and the victims of a series of 'social problems, adopting the victim-blaming thesis in the search for the cause(s) of specific phenomena. The radical perspective has been more likely to adopt structuralist and post-structuralist analyses, and to de-construct the association between young people and 'social problems, asking different questions and viewing research as part of a consciously political project








Outline
Feminist challenge to the sociology of youth
Teenage pregnancy: a social problem or not?
Crime and invisible girls
While we were doing the research I was asked hundreds of times what my research was about (as researchers usually are). Almost invariably the response to my explanation was in the nature of 'How awful! 'Poor/Silly girls! Or 'I bet you find some problems there! As the research neared its end I began to reply that actually te women and children were mostly doing fine, that lack of money was their major problem and that given their educational and family background it did not appear that their financial circumstances would necessarily have improved if they had deferred motherhood beyond their teenage years. Many people either simply did not believe me or added 'Yes, but caveats to my account. Other people were astonished that the stories 'young mothers might have to tell would not simply be full of doom and gloom
Phoenix, A. (1991:1) Young Mothers, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Reasons Phoenix asserts that there is a perception that young motherhood and poor outcomes for the child are linked:
Moral.
Ambiguity of adolescents status.
Perceived to be most common among
groups which are seen to be
problematic.
Reflects reality i.e. outcomes are
poor (Phoenix argues this is not the
case).
Phoenix, A. (1991:1) Young Mothers, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Contribution of feminist critiques
Made girls and women visible.
Challenged theories which ... more

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