Looking for essays on attending a technical college or a? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.
￼ Breast Feeding
Mother is considering breast feeding as an option, but is unsure of methods and benefits in comparison to bottle feeding. Is unsure about herself and whether or not she will be able to perform necessary tasks required to breast feed successfully.
Mother is 34 weeks pregnant, 20 years old, gravida one, para zero, previous smoker who quit after learning of pregnancy at two months. She works part time at a church and baby-sits occasionally, while attending college classes as a full time student.
Clients Readiness and Ability to Learn:
Mother is a high school graduate and also attended technical school where she learned to be a surgical technician. She is currently enrolled in more college classes and is hoping to further her education and become a Registered Nurse. Physical status is good, but mother is a little exhausted. Emotional status is that she is very ready for baby and excited about its arrival. Is ready for pregnancy to be over.
1. Risk for ineffective breastfeeding related to anxiety and inexperience with
breast feeding as evidenced by client showing signs of anxiety and
stating that she is unsure about herself and her capability to perform
the necessary tasks that are needed to be successful in breast feeding.
1. Learning Objectives
A. Client will learn benefits of breast feeding as compared to bottle feeding.
B. Client will learn different positions for breast feeding that may make the process easier for her.
C. Client will learn proper methods for successful breast feeding.
D. Client will be more sure of herself and be able to make the decision of whether or not to breast feed, based on newly learned information.
2. Outline of Learning Content:
1. Assess clients exposure to and knowledge about breast feeding, including
any misinformation she may have previously acquired. Allow time for
question and answer session about any concerns she may have.
2. Demonstrate to client various breast feeding positions and allow
her to practice and try them using a life-like doll. Assist her, possibly with
the use of pillows, and help her to accomplish the individual positions.
Continue with this until she is comfortable in performing all of the
positions, and has found at least one that she thinks will work well for her
and is confident in executing.
3. Show client how to initiate her babys rooting reflex. Also show her the
proper way for her baby to grasp her nipple and nurse successfully.
inform the client of the consequences if this is not done successfully (ex.
breast pain and insufficient amount of milk to the infant).
4. Advise client of feeding schedule for the new baby that is most beneficial
for both the child and the mother.
5. Demonstrate for client the proper way to remove infant from the breast
and advise her that this will prevent any pain or trauma to the nipple.
6. Tell client process of beginning feeding on next beast once first one is
emptied. Instruct client to begin the next feeding on the breast that is
opposite of the one she used to finish the last feeding. (This one should
now be full and noticeably firmer than the other breast.)
7. Provide instructions about proper nipple care (no soap, lanolin to prevent
drying and cracking).
8. Instruct client importance of wearing a well fitting bra at all times as this
may prevent a lot of pain and discomfort, and therefore probable
unsuccessful breast feeding.
2. Hands on learning using the doll
3. Instructive and illustrated pamphlets about the importance of and process
of breast feeding.
Method of Evaluation to be Used:
1. Return demonstration from client demonstrating various positions and
2. Client will be able to verbally express the importance and benefits of
3. Client will be able to make a knowledgeable decision of whether or not to
1. Teaching will occur in the privacy of the clients own home, as she has not
yet went into labor. This is where the client states that she is most
2. This teaching will take approximately one to one and a half hours to
complete. Only one teaching session will be necessary.
3. The clients sister will be present to assist the client and provide support.
The sister previously breast fed her children and ... more
Find essay on Attending A Technical College Or A
Sutherland's Differential Association
Born August 13, 1883 in Gibbon, Nebraska, Edwin H. Sutherland grew up and studied in Ottawa, Kansas, and Grand Island, Nebraska. After receiving his B.A degree from Grand Island College in 1904, he taught Latin, Greek, History, and shorthand for two years at Sioux Falls College in South Dakota. In 1906 he left Sioux Falls College and entered graduate school at the University of Chicago from which he received his doctorate. (Gaylord, 1988:7-12) While attending the University of Chicago he changed his major from history to sociology. Much of his study was influenced by the Chicago approach to the study of crime that emphasized human behavior as determined by social and physical environmental factors, rather than genetic or personal characteristics. (Gaylord, 1988:7-12)
With his studies completed he began work at the University of Minnesota from 1926 to 1929 where his reputation as a leading criminologist was enhanced. At this time, his focus became sociology as a scientific enterprise whose goal was the understanding and control of social problems, including crime. (Gaylord, 1988:13) After his time at Minnesota he moved to Indiana University and founded the Bloomington School of Criminology at Indiana University. While at Indiana, he published 3 books, including Twenty Thousand Homeless Men (1936), The Professional Thief (1937), and the third edition of Principles of Criminology (1939). Finally in 1939 he was elected president of the American Sociological Society, and in 1940 was elected president of the Sociological Research Association.
Similar in importance to strain theory and social control theory, Differential Association theory was Sutherland's major sociological contribution to criminology; . These theories all explain deviance in terms of the individual's social relationships.
By attributing the cause of crime to the social context of individuals, Differential Association departs from the pathological perspective and biological perspective. "He rejected biological determinism and the extreme individualism of psychiatry, as well as economic explanations of crime. His search for an alternative understanding of crime led to the development of Differential Association theory. In contrast to both classical and biological theories, Differential Association theory poses no obvious threats to the humane treatment of those identified as criminals."(Gaylord, 1988:1)
The principle of differential association asserts that criminal behavior emerges when one is exposed to more social message favoring conduct than pro-social messages. (Sutherland, 1947)
Sutherland argued that the concept of differential association and differential social organization could be applied to the individual level and to the group level respectively. While differential association theory explains why any individual gravitates toward criminal behavior, differential social organization explains why crime rates of different social entities differ from each other's. In his fourth edition of Principles of Criminology he presented his final theory of differential association. His theory has 9 basic postulates:
1. Criminal behavior is learned as opposed to inherited through genetics.
2. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication. This communication is verbal in many cases but includes gestures.
3. The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups. This suggests that television or newspapers are not important in committing criminal.
4. When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes (a) techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very simple; (b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.
5. The specific direction of the motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable.
6. A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law. This is the principle of differential association. Not only do people become criminal because of contacts with criminal patterns but also because of isolation from anti-criminal patterns.
7. Differential association may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.
Priority seems to be important through its selective influence. Intensity has to do with such things as the prestige of the source of a criminal or anti-criminal pattern and with the emotions they create.
8. The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. This means that the learning of criminal behavior is not restricted to the process ... more
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