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atomic physics Origins

Adam Dill
Origins
Creationism vs. Evolution, the argument disputed by more scientists, more paleontologists and more everyday people than probably any other argument since the dawn of man. Who is right? Do the theories and evidence of evolutionists have the right answers or do the faith and facts of creationists hold the answers?
What is creationism? Creationism is the idea that all forms of life, and particularly humans, were independently created by a willful act on the part of God or a deity. Whats wrong with creationism? That depends on what form of creationism you are referring to. There are several forms of creationism that all differ from one another. None are really scientific, though not all are unscientific to the same degree. Old earth creationism holds that the earth was created a very long time ago and populated with life more-or-less shown in fossil records. However, new species of organisms were created one-by-one over all that time, each the result of a separate creative act by the Deity. This theory is not scientific, because it cannot be falsified; any evidence can be made to fit into it. Sequential creationism says that the earth is old, and the major groups of fossils do reflect organisms living at different times in earths history. However, the major mass extinction represent times when all living things were destroyed, and then the earth was repopulated by a new creative act. The last extinction happened recently, after which the current animals and humans were created, but this isnt scientific either. Sequential creationism simply doesnt agree with the evidence. None of these mass extinctions wiped out all life. In many cases, we find the same species of organisms both before and after the extinctions. Day-age creationism says that the book of Genesis is accurate in describing the order of creation, but that each day in Genesis actually represents a long period of real time. This position also runs out of evidence, primarily because the order of creation as given in Genesis doesnt agree with the order as shown in fossil records. Of all the different forms of creationism young-earth creationism is the worst. This is the position that most of the politically active creationists hold. Young-earth creationists demand a literal reading of Genesis. They insist that the earth is less than ten thousand years old; that it and all life were created in just six twenty-four-hour days; and that the entire fossil record is a result of Noahs flood.
Other forms of creationism are simply different interpretations of the known geological and fossil evidence. Only young-earth creationism requires its believers to either reject or rewrite most of the hard sciences. Atomic physics, astrophysics, most of geology, most of paleontology, much of biology and nearly all of genetics would have to be torn down for young-earth creationism to be true. If this were true then all the fossil evidence, researchers, scientists and many others supporting evolution are not only wrong, but also have wasted centuries of time and research.
There are absolute arguments to disprove the theories of evolution. The first being that evolution cannot take place unless random mutations occur, but in the case of advanced animal defense mechanisms, random mutation cannot produce them.
An example of this would be a particular beetle called the bombardier beetle. This particular beetle houses two chemical tanks in its body which are used for the purpose of self-defense. When a predator attacks the beetle, the two different chemicals in the tanks are sprayed out from the beetle. They combine in the air and create a hot chemical explosion in the face of the predator insuring the beetles survival. According to evolution when the very first mutation appeared and the chemical tanks were just beginning to form but were not yet functional, they would not provide any survival benefit to the beetle. It would take many thousands of mutations over millions of years to produce the end mechanism, but since mutations are random, they could never follow a pattern to produce an end result, especially since the mechanism would not provide any survival advantage until it was fully developed. Evolution just simply cannot work! A current modernized example would be like copying ... more

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Robert Burns Woodward




    Biography of Robert Burns Woodward
Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston on April 10th, 1917, the only child
of Margaret and Arthur Woodward, of English antecedents. Robert's father Arthur died in
October of 1918, at an early age of only thirty-three years old.
Robert Woodward was attracted to chemistry at a very early age, and indulged his
taste for the science in private activities throughout the period of his primary and
secondary education in the public schools of Quincy, a suburb of Boston. In 1933, he
entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, from which they excluded him because
of  inattention to formal studies at the end of the Fall term in 1934. The Institute
authorities generously allowed him to re-enroll in the Fall term of 1935, and he took the
degrees of Bachelor of Science in 1936 and Doctor of Philosophy in 1937. Since that time
he has been associated with Harvard University, as Postdoctoral Fellow (1937-1938),
Member of the Society of Fellows (1938-1940), Instructor in Chemistry (1941-1944),
Assistant Professor (1944-1946), Associate Professor (1946-1950), Professor (1950-
1953), Morris Loeb Professor of Chemistry (1953-1960), and Donner Professor of
Science since 1960. After all of these things that he did, it's no wonder why he was on his
way to a Nobel prize in the near future.  In 1963 he assumed direction of the Woodward
Research Institute at Basel.  In 1965 was when he recieved his Nobel prize for his
outstanding achievments in organic synthesis.  His studies brought knowledge to the world
and opened doors for later scientists that were in his field of organic synthesis.  He was a
member of the Corporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1966-1971),
and he was a Member of the Board of Governors of the Weizmann Institute of Science.
Robert Woodward has been very fortunate, (which was a little unusual), in the
outstanding personal qualities and scientific capabilities of a large proportion of his more
than two hundred and fifty collaborators in Cambridge, and latterly in Basel, of whom
more than half have assumed academic positions. He has also on numerous occasions
enjoyed exceptionally stimulating and fruitful collaboration with fellow-scientists in
laboratories other than his own. His interests in chemistry are wide, but the main arena of
his first-hand engagement has been the investigation of natural products, or organic
chemistry -- a domain he regards as "endlessly fascinating in itself," and one which
presents unlimited and unparalleled opportunities for the discovery, testing, development
and refinement of general principles.
Professor Woodward holds more than twenty honorary degrees of which only a
few I listed here:  D.Sc. Wesleyan University, 1945; D. Sc. Harvard University, 1957; D.
Sc. University of Cambridge (England), 1964; D. Sc. Brandeis University, 1965; D. Sc.
Israel Institute of Technology (Haifa), 1966; D.Sc. University of Western Ontario
(Canada), 1968;D.Sc. University de Louvain (Belgium), 1970.
Some of  the awards presented to him I listed here:  John Scott Medal (Franklin
Institute and City of Philadelphia), 1945; Backeland Medal (North Jersey Section of the
American Chemical Society), 1955; Davy Medal (Royal Society), 1959; Roger Adams
Medal (American Chemical Society), 1961; Pius XI Gold Medal (Pontifical Academy of
Sciences), 1969; National Medal of Science (United States of America), 1964; Willard
Gibbs Medal (Chicago Section of the American Chemical Society), 1967; Lavoisier Medal
(Society Chimique de France), 1968; The Order of the Rising Sun, Second Class (His
Majesty the Emperor of Japan), 1970; Hanbury Memorial Medal (The Pharmaceutical
Society of Great Britain), 1970; Pierre Brnylants Medal (University de Louvain), 1970.
Robert Woodward is a member of the National Academy of Sciences; Fellow of
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Honorary Member of the German Chemical
Society; Honorary Fellow of The Chemical Society; Foreign Member of the Royal
Society; Honorary Member of the Royal Irish Academy; Corresponding Member of the
Austrian Academy of Sciences; Member of the American Philosophical Society; Honorary
Member of the Belgian Chemical Society; Honorary Fellow of the Indian Academy of
Sciences; Honorary Member of the Swiss Chemical Society; Member of the Deutsche
Academe der Naturforscher (Leopoldina); Foreign Member of the Academia Nazionale
dei Lincei; Honorary Fellow of the Weizmann Institute of Science; Honorary Member of
the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.
Robert Woodward's marriages include Irja Pullman in 1938, who he later divorced,
and then married Eudoxia Muller in 1946. He has three daughters: Siiri Anne (b. 1939),
Jean Kirsten (b. 1944), and Crystal Elisabeth (b. 1947), and a son, Eric Richard Arthur (b.
1953).                                                    
Organic Chemistry and the Modern Era
Organic chemistry developed extensively in the ... more

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  • Origins Origins Origins Adam Dill Origins Creationism vs. Evolution, the argument disputed by more scientists, more paleontologists and more everyday people than probably any other argument since the dawn of man. Who is right? Do the theories and evidence of evolutionists have the right answers or do the faith and facts of creationists hold the answers? What is creationism? Creationism is the idea that all forms of life, and particularly humans, were independently created by a willful act on the part of God o...