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atmospheric administration Aliens

-- Copyright Information --
1999 SIRS Mandarin, Inc. -- SIRS Researcher Spring 1999
Title: Scientists: UFO Reports May Be Worth Evaluating
Author: Michelle Levander
Source: San Jose Mercury News (San Jose, CA)
Publication Date: June 28, 1998 Page Number(s): n.p.
---------------------------
SAN JOSE MERCURY NEWS
(San Jose, Calif.)
June 28, 1998, n.p.
(c) 1998, Knight-Ridder Newspapers. Distributed by
Knight-Ridder/Tribune Information Services.
SCIENTISTS: UFO REPORTS MAY BE WORTH EVALUATING
by Michelle Levander
Mercury News Staff Writer
For more than 50 years, UFO investigators have scoured the skies for signs of alien life--completely snubbed by the scientific community as cranks.
But today, in the first independent scientific review of UFO evidence in nearly 30 years, scientists gave a faint nod in their direction by concluding that it might be worthwhile to evaluate UFO reports, marking a major and important shift in the eyes of some UFO investigators.
What we need are more scientists looking at this area if we are going to get answers, said Peter Sturrock, the Stanford University physicist who convened the international panel of skeptical scientists. Sturrock assembled the group after being approached by New York philanthropist Laurance S. Rockefeller, the grandson of John D. Rockefeller and someone who reportedly has a longstanding interest in UFOs and psychic phenomena.
Sturrock, whose Society for Scientific Exploration promotes the examination of ideas outside the scientific mainstream, hopes the panel's review of UFO reports, to be published today in the alternative Journal of Scientific Exploration, spurs more solid research in the arena.
To be sure, after a rare meeting between scientists and UFO investigators, the scientific panel remained skeptical. Nevertheless, they said the scientific community's refusal to even entertain the analysis of such information has been counterproductive.
The history of Earth science includes several examples of the final acceptance of phenomena originally dismissed as folk tales, such as meteorites and sprites, the report says. It may therefore be valuable to carefully evaluate UFO reports to extract information about unusual phenomena currently unknown to science.
One UFO investigator was pleased with the findings.
OPENNESS, EVIDENCE
Mark Rodeghier, of the Center for UFO Study in Chicago, interprets the panel's greater openness as an important step to bring the world of science--which demands empirical evidence-- closer to that of UFO observers, some of whom believe they now know what aliens do during human abductions.
Taking a break from the national Mutual UFO Network conference, Rodeghier said, It would be extremely important for us to know if aliens are visiting the Earth surreptitiously. I didn't expect in five days that they would change their mind completely. I think it's sufficient that they say the subject deserves study.
For its review, the panel examined evidence such as a 1981 photograph of a silvery oval-shaped object set against the blue sky, taken in British Columbia--the photographer swears it was not a trick photo of a frisbee--and a 1965 report by two French submarine crews in Martinique of a large luminous object (that) arrived slowly and silently from the west, flew to the south...and vanished like a rapidly extinguished light bulb.
The last time scientists took a serious look at UFOs was in 1968, when Dr. Edward U. Condon, director of the Colorado Project, undertook a two-year study sponsored by the Central Intelligence Agency and the U.S. Air Force. His dismissive conclusion: Nothing has come of the study of UFOs in the past 21 years...and further extensive study of UFOs probably cannot be justified...
Already some of this panel's scientists are steeling themselves for ridicule from peers.
I haven't gone around and advertised I've done this. I thought I'd wait until our report came out and then let them take their jabs then, said Thomas Holzer, senior scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
Still, he adds, he shares the panel's view that more openness is needed.
NATURAL PHENOMENA
Some UFO reports, the scientists concluded, could be explained by rare natural events such as sprites, or what appear to be huge sheets of light moving upward from cloud decks caused by electrical activity high above thunderclouds.
Unusual radar patterns that UFO investigators interpret as flight patterns of alien craft are likely radar echoes caused by refraction in the atmosphere, said panel member and Stanford professor Von Eshleman, who studies the structure of the atmosphere through experiments on U.S. space missions.
And, the scientists said, some in their community may be more ... more

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Global warming and the greenhouse effect

The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

Recently, global warming has moved to a serious scientific issue.  Because sunlight is constantly falling on the earth, the law of physics say that the planet has to radiate the same amount of energy back into space.  Infrared radiation is sent out by the earth through the atmosphere, where molecules (carbon dioxide) hold outgoing radiation for a while, warming the surface.1  The molecules are kind of like glass in a greenhouse  which is why this process of warming is called the greenhouse effect.
The greenhouse effect has been operating since the beginning of time.  Without the effect, the surface of the earth would be -20 degrees Celsius, oceans would have frozen, and there would be no life on earth.   The Washington Post has reported that the earth is warmer than it has been in 1,200 years.2  Recently, the summer of 1999 set records for heat in much of the United States.  The average world temperature has increased one degree Fahrenheit over the last 120 years, making the world hotter than it has been in 100,000 years.  From the beginning of the industrial revolution, concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased by 30%, concentrations of methane have doubled, and nitrous oxide has risen by 15%.  The increases of these chemicals have enhanced the heat trapping capability of the atmosphere of the earth.  Sulfate aerosols, cool the atmosphere because they reflect light back into space, but sulfates do not live long in the atmosphere.  
Scientists still do not know what exactly is heating up the earth.  Some say the earth is going through a natural cycle because the earth has gone through cold periods as well as hot periods.  Mounting evidence is saying that humans are to blame for the rise in temperatures over the past 120 years.  When we burn fossil fuel, oil, gasoline, and natural gas to run power plants, cars, and heat homes, we produce carbon dioxide.  An increase in carbon dioxide magnifies the greenhouse effect.  All this energy accounts for 80% of society’s carbon dioxide emissions, 25% of methane emissions, and 20% of nitrous oxide emissions.  In 1994, the U.S. emitted one fifth of all the greenhouse gases in the earth.  Carbon dioxide amounts are now 360 parts per million today, verses 315 per million parts in 1958, when modern technology started, and 270 per million parts in pre-industrial times.  Scientists cannot actually predict what the climate will be like in the future, though.  James E. Hansen, a director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, says that scientists know too little about the climate to make accurate predictions.   "The forcings that drive long-term climate change are not known with an accuracy sufficient to define future climate change," Hansen wrote in a journal, The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  
Many people believe that carbon dioxide is nothing to worry about.  And many scientists are turning away from the debate about whether human-induced global warming is taking place.  It is true that Earth’s ocean, plants, soil, and animals naturally release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.  And other gases such as methane and water vapor trap solar radiation like the way a greenhouse traps the sun’s warmth.  Human activities are adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than are being naturally recycled.  This is what scientist believe is causing global warming.
And what are the effects of global warming?  Rising temperatures are expected to raise the sea level and change local climate conditions.  By changing these conditions, the climate could alter forests, water supplies, and crop yields.  This could also threaten human health, and harm many ecosystems of animals.  Deserts could expand into range lands and many National Parks could be altered.  And many of the most important impacts depend upon whether rainfall will increase or decrease.  The rate of climate change is also much more important than how much the change will be because the rate will determine whether humans and ecosystems can adapt to survive.  A decreased day and night temperature and night warming may happen when an increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases takes place.  
Emissions are a major problem contributing to the greenhouse effect.  These gases ... more

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  • T: Aliens T: Aliens Aliens -- Copyright Information -- 1999 SIRS Mandarin, Inc. -- SIRS Researcher Spring 1999 Title: Scientists: UFO Reports May Be Worth Evaluating Author: Michelle Levander Source: San Jose Mercury News (San Jose, CA) Publication Date: June 28, 1998 Page Number(s): n.p. --------------------------- SAN JOSE MERCURY NEWS (San Jose, Calif.) June 28, 1998, n.p. (c) 1998, Knight-Ridder Newspapers. Distributed by Knight-Ridder/Tribune Information Services. SCIENTISTS: UFO REPORTS MAY BE WORTH EVALUAT...
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