Assumes That God


Find More Assumes That God

Looking for essays on assumes that god? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.

assumes that god God Cannot Exist Using Descartes Arguements

Descartes sets about proving the existence of God through his meditations on knowledge in an effort to prove the skeptics of his time wrong.  He first determines that human knowledge is based entirely too much on unproved presuppositions.  He argues that this makes it difficult to distinguish between truth and error, since we cannot recognize true knowledge.  Descartes proposes that the quest for knowledge must be based upon universal doubt.  Specifically, he proposes the following in relation to his universal methodic doubt:
1. In order to seek truth, it is necessary once in the course of our life, to doubt, as far as possible, of all things.
2. We ought also to consider as false all that is doubtful.
3. We ought not meanwhile to make use of doubt in the conduct of life
4. Why we may doubt of sensible things.
5. Why we may also doubt of mathematical demonstrations.
6. We cannot doubt of our existence while we doubt, and this is the first knowledge we acquire when we philosophize in order.
Descartes proceeded to strip away his knowledge base in order to determine the one indubitable fact, "Cogito, ergo sum".  From this absolute knowledge of his own existence, he set about deducing the existence of God through ontological argument.
In our minds, the idea of God is one of an infinitely perfect Being
An infinitely perfect being must have existence, otherwise it would not be infinitely perfect.
In proving the existence of God, Descartes set the groundwork for determining that God created man.  He further postulated that God, being infinitely perfect and not a deceiver, could not have provided man with the deceptive powers of knowledge.  Therefore, man's mental faculties are determined to be trustworthy provided we separate what there is of clear and distinct in the knowledge from what is obscure and confused.  Using this reasoning, man must discard all previous knowledge which is doubt-ridden, all sensory-based knowledge (as perceptions can be misleading), and all intellection.  As a result, skepticism is removed and valid knowledge possible.
Descartes primary purpose was the defense of human knowledge against the attacks of the skeptics.  He was justified in excluding preconceived notions, presuppositions, and traditions in determining the limits of knowledge.  Descartes discarded the ability of the mind to know truth and the human abilities of contradiction and sufficient reason.  In doing so, he made a solution to the problem impossible.
As it relates to his theory of the existence of God, Descartes universal doubt refutes his own conclusion as to God's existence.  Descartes formed an idea of God as an infinitely good being.  He would have had to discover this idea within his own mind.  According to his principle of universal doubt, he cannot simply know whether his conception of God is correct or incorrect.  He would have, as a matter of his own principle, considered it as false until proven otherwise.  Therefore, since the idea of God is in doubt, the trustworthiness of man's reasoning must also be doubtful and Descartes cannot escape his own real doubt.
Descartes uses a process of reasoning, a mathematical formulae, in attempting to demonstrate God's existence.  If his reasoning is of demonstrably doubtful validity, how can Descartes demonstrate God's existence?  The validity of Descartes reasoning is supposed to flow as a consequence of the infinite perfection of God; and God's infinite perfect is made certain through Descartes' reasoning powers before he has even proven that these reasoning powers are valid and trustworthy.  Descartes assumes the very thing beforehand which he intends to prove afterwards. (Begging the question).
Descartes accepts the trustworthiness of his faculties in demonstrating the existence and infinite perfection of God, and that is illegitimate.  A doubtfully valid faculty will produce a doubtfully valid argument which will, in turn, produce a doubtfully valid conclusion.  The entire argument for God's existence is therefore nullified by a suspect reasoning process.  Since he proves the reliability of his reason and process by means of God's veracity, the proof of his reliability cannot be established beyond doubt.
Thus, Descartes attempt to vindicate the validity of human knowledge failed, because, by rejecting the reliability of his own powers to discover and know truth, he made it impossible for himself to remove himself from his ... more

assumes that god

Research on Assumes That God

  1. Open Free Essay
    Launch Free Essay and search for "Assumes That God" to start researching.
  2. Find the perfect essay
    Choose from tons of different essay in various lengths, styles and themes. Find the perfect Assumes That God essay to find and customize for your brainstorming needs.
  3. Brainstorm ideas and themes
    Use the essays you found on Assumes That God and extract the ideas from them. Use those ideas for the basis of your own essay.
  4. Cite your essay
    Remember to cite any essays you used for your new essay.
Start a New Essay on Assumes That God

Find essay on Assumes That God

Berkeley's Theory of Immaterialism

       As man progressed through the various stages of evolution, it
is assumed that at a certain point he began to ponder the world around
him. Of course, these first attempts fell short of being scholarly,
probably consisting of a few grunts and snorts at best. As time passed
on, though, these ideas persisted and were eventually tackled by the
more intellectual, so-called philosophers. Thus, excavation of "the
external world" began. As the authoritarinism of the ancients gave way
to the more liberal views of the modernists, two main positions
concerning epistemology and the nature of the world arose. The first
view was exemplified by the empiricists, who stated that all knowledge
comes from the senses. In opposition, the rationalists maintained that
knowledge comes purely from deduction, and that this knowledge is
processed by certain innate schema in the mind. Those that belonged to
the empiricist school of thought developed quite separate and distinct
ideas concerning the nature of the substratum of sensible objects.
John Locke and David Hume upheld the belief that sensible things were
composed of material substance, the basic framework for the
materialist position. The main figure who believed that material
substance did not exist is George Berkeley. In truth, it is the
immaterialist position that seems the most logical when placed under
close scrutiny.

       The initial groundwork for Berkeley's position is the truism
that the materialist is a skeptic. In the writing of his three
dialogues, Berkeley develops two characters: Hylas (the materialist)
and Philonous (Berkeley himself). Philonous draws upon one central
supposition of the materialist to formulate his argument of skepticism
against him; this idea is that one can never perceive the real essence
of anything. In short, the materialist feels that the information
received through sense experience gives a representative picture of
the outside world (the representative theory of perception), and one
can not penetrate to the true essece of an object. This makes logical
sense, for the only way to perceive this real essence would be to
become the object itself! Although the idea is logical, it does
contain a certain grounding for agnosticism. Let the reader consider
this: if there is no way to actually sense the true material essence
of anything, and all knowledge in empiricism comes from the senses,
then the real material essence can not be perceived and therefore it
can not be posited. This deserves careful consideration, for the
materialist has been self-proclaimed a skeptic! If the believer in
this theory were asked if a mythical beast such as a cyclops existed
he would most certainly say no. As part of his reply he might add that
because it can not be sensed it is not a piece of knowledge. After
being enlightened by the above proposed argument, though, that same
materialist is logically forced to agree that, because the "material
substratum1" itself can not be sensed, its existence can not be
treated as knowledge. The materialist belief has, in effect, become as
futile as proving that the cyclops exists; his ideas have lead him
into skepticism.

       Having proven that the materialist is, at best, a doubter,
Berkeley goes on to offer the compelling argument that primary and
secondary qualities are, together, one thing. As the materialist
believes, primary qualities of an object are those things that are
abstract (not sense oriented). Examples of these would be number,
figure, motion, and extension. Secondary qualities are those things
that are concrete (sense oriented), such as color, smell, sound, and
taste. The materialist feels that these primary qualities persist even
when the secondary ones are not there. Thus, if a person were blind,
then that individual would not be able to hear or to touch items; yet
the so-called real qualities such as figure would remain existent in
the objects. As previously shown, the materialist is agnostic in his
belief of these real (primary) qualities. It is here that Berkeley
directs an alternate hypothesis: that the abstract primary qualities
don't exist at all. In fact, the immaterialist position states that
these qualities are merely secondary in nature, as they, too, can not
be perceived as being separate from an object. For instance, if a
person is asked to imagine a primary quality ... more

assumes that god

FAQ

What long should essays be?

Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.

What makes an effective essay?

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.

What should be included on an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

What They say About Free Essay

I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling

@Gusgustt

Browse Essays

  • A: Absolute A: Absolute Absolute An elephant was brought to a group of blind men who had never encountered such an animal before. One felt a leg and reported that an elephant is a great living pillar. Another felt the trunk and reported that an elephant is a great snake. Another felt a tusk and reported that an elephant is like a sharp ploughshare. And so on. And then they all quarreled together, each claiming that his own account was the truth and therefore all the others false (traditional parable). None of the accou...
  • S: God Cannot Exist Using Descartes Arguements S: God Cannot Exist Using Descartes Arguements God Cannot Exist Using Descartes Arguements Descartes sets about proving the existence of God through his meditations on knowledge in an effort to prove the skeptics of his time wrong. He first determines that human knowledge is based entirely too much on unproved presuppositions. He argues that this makes it difficult to distinguish between truth and error, since we cannot recognize true knowledge. Descartes proposes that the quest for knowledge must be based upon universal doubt. Specifically,...
  • S: Berkeleys Theory of Immaterialism S: Berkeleys Theory of Immaterialism Berkeley\'s Theory of Immaterialism As man progressed through the various stages of evolution, it is assumed that at a certain point he began to ponder the world around him. Of course, these first attempts fell short of being scholarly, probably consisting of a few grunts and snorts at best. As time passed on, though, these ideas persisted and were eventually tackled by the more intellectual, so-called philosophers. Thus, excavation of the external world began. As the authoritarinism of the an...
  • U: Absolute Understanding U: Absolute Understanding Absolute Understanding An elephant was brought to a group of blind men who had never encountered such an animal before. One felt a leg and reported that an elephant is a great living pillar. Another felt the trunk and reported that an elephant is a great snake. Another felt a tusk and reported that an elephant is like a sharp ploughshare. And so on. And then they all quarreled together, each claiming that his own account was the truth and therefore all the others false (traditional parable). Non...
  • M: First Meditation M: First Meditation First Meditation Descartes first meditation, his main objective is to present three skeptical arguments to bring doubt upon what he considers his basic beliefs. Descartes believes this to be an intricate part of his complete epistemological argument. Descartes skeptical arguments are not intended to be a denial of his basic beliefs. On the contrary, he uses these arguments to help prove one of his main theses, which is the existence of God. One of the main premises that Descartes uses in his pr...
  • E: Edgar Allan Poe E: Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe By: Tommy Smith Short Story Perversity Edgar Allan Poe is perhaps the best-known American Romantic who worked in the Gothic mode. His stories explore the darker side of the Romantic imagination, dealing with the grotesque, the supernatural, and the horrifying. He defined the form of the American short story. As one might expect, Poe himself eschewed conventional morality, which he believed stems from man\'s attempts to dictate the purposes of God. Poe saw God more as process than...
  • S: Searching for an Inner Self S: Searching for an Inner Self Searching for an Inner Self In the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, by Zora Neale Hurston a young girl named Janie begins her life unknown to herself. She searches for the horizon as it illustrates the distance one must travel in order to distinguish between illusion and reality, dream and truth, role and self (Hemenway 75). She is unaware of lifes two most precious gifts: love and the truth. Janie is raised by her suppressive grandmother who diminishes her view of life. Janies quest for t...
  •  : HUMAN NEEDS : HUMAN NEEDS HUMAN NEEDS What makes a life a truly human one? Is it possible to make a sort of identification when a life has been so impoverished that it is not worthy of the dignity of the human being? (Women, Culture and Development, p.74). This is the very question Martha Nussbaum, leading female Aristotelian philosopher, addresses throughout various pieces of her work. What she has tried to do is establish a list of central capabilities that can be convincingly argued to be of central importance in a...
  • T: POLITICS T: POLITICS POLITICS Penalty for Bias-Motivated Crimes On June 11, 1993, the United State Supreme Court upheld Wisconsin\'s penalty enhancement law, which imposes harsher sentences on criminals who intentionally select the person against whom the crime...is committed..because of the race, religion, color, disability, sexual orientation, national origin or ancestry of that person. Chief Justice Rehnquist delivered the opinion of the unanimous Court. This paper argues against the decision, and will attempt ...
  • H: Role of the foll in shakespeares king lear H: Role of the foll in shakespeares king lear role of the foll in shakespeare\'s king lear Alison Dew Explore the role of the fool in King Lear. In Elizabethan times, the role of a fool, or court jester, was to professionally entertain others, specifically the king. In essence, fools were hired to make mistakes. Fools may have been mentally retarded youths kept for the courts amusement, or more often they were singing, dancing stand up comedians. In William Shakespeares King Lear the fool plays many important roles. When Cordelia, Lear...
  • A: General Synopsis Of Philosophy A: General Synopsis Of Philosophy General Synopsis Of Philosophy Machiavelli: Principality and Republic Among the most widely-read of the Renaissance thinkers was Niccolo Machiavelli, a Florentine politician who retired from public service to write at length on the skill required for successfully running the state. Impatient with abstract reflections on the way things ought to be, Machiavelli focussed on the way things are, illustrating his own intensely practical convictions with frequent examples from the historical record. Al...
  • T: Pacifism and Conscientious objection T: Pacifism and Conscientious objection Pacifism and Conscientious objection During the 20th century America has been involved in many conflicts that have led to war or the taking up of arms against other humans and nations. Although the vast majority of Americans have blindly accepted these actions throughout the century, more and more people are seeing war as morally wrong. Reasons for this epiphany are based off of a variety of things and encompass many other aspects related to war and killing examples include: due to moral and eth...
  •  : Toni Morrison : Toni Morrison Toni Morrison Toni Morrison The issue of abandonment and the will that it takes to survive the hardship of it is a reoccurring theme in Toni Morrisons writing. Tar Baby, Sula and Paradise all deal with the issue of abandonment and how it relates to the characters in her stories. Through her fiction, Toni Morrison intends to present problems, not their answers (Moon). Her stated aim is to show how to survive whole in a world where we are all of us, in some measure, victims of something. (Mor...
  • G: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT G: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT CAPITAL PUNISHMENT Group 20 November 30, 2000 Argumentative Out of the Frying Pan, and into the.Hot Seat? Capital punishment is a very controversial subject in todays world. People should think about what will happen to them if they commit a crime, and the consequences that will follow the crime. Society has enough problems to deal with without people committing crimes, Therefore capital punishment is desperately needed. Above all else, it costs too much of hard working taxpayers dollars to s...
  • O: Organic Evolution O: Organic Evolution Organic Evolution LBST 2231 April 16, 2004 Everybody knows the great debate about how the world became what it is and how the earth was created. Even though we are living in the technology age, there are still no certainties about how everything came to be how we see it today. This is mainly due to the obvious fact that there were no humans alive at the time earth was first created to record data on the earliest years of Earth. What we do know however, is that everything came about by something ...
  • D: Absolute Underezding D: Absolute Underezding Absolute Underezding An elephant was brought to a group of blind men who had never encountered such an animal before. One felt a leg and reported that an elephant is a great living pillar. Another felt the trunk and reported that an elephant is a great snake. Another felt a tusk and reported that an elephant is like a sharp ploughshare. And so on. And then they all quarreled together, each claiming that his own account was the truth and therefore all the others false (traditional parable). None ...
  • A Good Man Is Hard To Find A Good Man Is Hard To Find A Good Man Is Hard To Find A Good Man is Hard to Find Flannery OConnor A Good Man Is Hard To Find A Southern American novelist and short story writer, Miss O Connors career spanned the 1950s and early 60s, a time when the South was dominated by Protestant Christians. OConnor was born and raised Catholic. She was a fundamentalist and a Christian moralist whose powerful apocalyptic fiction is focused in the South. Flannery OConnor was born March 25, 1925, in Savannah, Georgia. O...
  • Marx And Nietzsche Marx And Nietzsche Word Count: 4155 Society is flawed. There are critical imbalances in it that cause much of humanity to suffer. In, the most interesting work from this past half-semester, The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx is reacting to this fact by describing his vision of a perfectly balanced society, a communist society. Simply put, a communist society is one where all property is held in common. No one person has more than the other, but rather everyone shares in the fruits of their labors. Marx is writing ...
  • Themes of The Good Earth Pearl Buck Good Earth Ess Themes of The Good Earth Pearl Buck Good Earth Ess Themes of The Good Earth Pearl Buck Good Earth Essays Themes of The Good Earth The theme of this novel is not a complicated one. The author is trying to show how a family can rise from poverty to a position of wealth. However, the rise in itself is not the crucial element; the background against which this rise takes place is more important. Wang Lung lives in an era of change. China has been a backward country in many respects. Her principal fault, however, was the existence of two distinct cla...
  • Hamlet Hamlet Hamlet Laertes and Hamlet both display impulsive reactions when angered. Once Laertes discovers his father has been murdered Laertes immediately assumes the slayer is Claudius. As a result of Laertes's speculation he instinctively moves to avenge Polonius's death. To hell, allegiance! vows, to the blackest devil! Conscience and grace, to the profoundest pit! I dare damnation: to this point I stand, that both worlds I give to negligence, let come what comes; only I'll be revenged most thoroughly...
  • Huckleberry Finn Huckleberry Finn Huckleberry Finn The narrator (later identified as Huckleberry Finn) begins Chapter One by stating that the reader may know of him from another book, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mr. Mark Twain, but it ain't t no matter if you have not. According to Huck, Twain mostly told the truth, with some stretchers thrown in, though everyone--except Tom's Aunt Polly, the widow, and maybe Mary--lies once in a while. The other book ended with Tom and Huckleberry finding the gold some robbers had hid...
  • Nietzsche Morality Nietzsche Morality Nietzsche Morality Nietzsche: morality; How ought I to be? Nietzsche abhorred all morality; he felt it is fodder for the mindless masses (the herd). It deadens and destroys the individual, condemns creativity, and gives man no credit to make choices. It assumes man can not know what to do, so it lays down pre-made decisions for him to mindlessly follow. It ignores the nature of human instinct and stifles the growth of mankind. Moralists and philosophers both sought an order for the universe a...
  • Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar In ancient history there have been many great leaders who have come to the forefront to save the Roman Empire from destruction and demise. The leaders and heroes of the Roman Empire are countless, but one leader stands out from all the rest. Augustus Caesars contributions to Roman history helped make Rome the dominant empire we study and remember today. (Octavian) Augustus Caesar is without a doubt the greatest political leader in the history of the Roman Empire. As a young adol...
  • Huck Finn Huck Finn Huck Finn The narrator (later identified as Huckleberry Finn) begins Chapter One by stating that the reader may know of him from another book, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mr. Mark Twain, but it ain't t no matter if you have not. According to Huck, Twain mostly told the truth, with some stretchers thrown in, though everyone--except Tom's Aunt Polly, the widow, and maybe Mary--lies once in a while. The other book ended with Tom and Huckleberry finding the gold some robbers had hidden in a cave...
  • Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar In ancient history there have been many great leaders who have come to the forefront to save the Roman Empire from destruction and demise. The leaders and heroes of the Roman Empire are countless, but one leader stands out from all the rest. Augustus Caesars contributions to Roman history helped make Rome the dominant empire we study and remember today. (Octavian) Augustus Caesar is without a doubt the greatest political leader in the history of the Roman Empir...