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arles Arianism


A heresy which arose in the fourth century, and denied the Divinity of Jesus
Christ.

DOCTRINE

First among the doctrinal disputes which troubled Christians after Constantine
had recognized the Church in A.D. 313, and the parent of many more during some
three centuries, Arianism occupies a large place in ecclesiastical history. It
is not a modern form of unbelief, and therefore will appear strange in modern
eyes. But we shall better grasp its meaning if we term it an Eastern attempt to
rationalize the creed by stripping it of mystery so far as the relation of
Christ to God was concerned. In the New Testament and in Church teaching Jesus
of Nazareth appears as the Son of God. This name He took to Himself (Matt., xi,
27; John, x, 36), while the Fourth Gospel declares Him to be the Word (Logos),
Who in the beginning was with God and was God, by Whom all things were made. A
similar doctrine is laid down by St. Paul, in his undoubtedly genuine Epistles
to the Ephesians, Colossians, and Philippians. It is reiterated in the Letters
of Ignatius, and accounts for Pliny's observation that Christians in their
assemblies chanted a hymn to Christ as God. But the question how the Son was
related to the Father (Himself acknowledged on all hands to be the one Supreme
Deity), gave rise, between the years A. D. 60 and 200, to number of Theosophic
systems, called generally Gnosticism, and having for their authors Basilides,
Valentinus, Tatian, and other Greek speculators. Though all of these visited
Rome, they had no following in the West, which remained free from controversies
of an abstract nature, and was faithful to the creed of its baptism.
Intellectual centers were chiefly Alexandria and Antioch, Egyptian or Syrian,
and speculation was carried on in Greek. The Roman Church held steadfastly by
tradition. Under these circumstances, when Gnostic schools had passed away with
their "conjugations" of Divine powers, and "emanations" from the Supreme
unknowable God (the "Deep" and the "Silence") all speculation was thrown into
the form of an inquiry touching the "likeness" of the Son to His Father and
"sameness" of His Essence. Catholics had always maintained that Christ was truly
the Son, and truly God. They worshipped Him with divine honors; they would never
consent to separate Him, in idea or reality, from the Father, Whose Word, Reason,
Mind, He was, and in Whose Heart He abode from eternity. But the technical terms
of doctrine were not fully defined; and even in Greek words like essence (ousia),
substance (hypostasis), nature (physics), person (hyposopon) bore a variety of
meanings drawn from the pre-Christian sects of philosophers, which could not but
entail misunderstandings until they were cleared up. The adaptation of a
vocabulary employed by Plato and Aristotle to Christian truth was a matter of
time; it could not be done in a day; and when accomplished for the Greek it had
to be undertaken for the Latin, which did not lend itself readily to necessary
yet subtle distinctions. That disputes should spring up even among the orthodox
who all held one faith, was inevitable. And of these wranglings the rationalist
would take advantage in order to substitute for the ancient creed his own
inventions. The drift of all he advanced was this: to deny that in any true
sense God could have a Son; as Mohammed tersely said afterwards, "God neither
begets, nor is He begotten" (Koran, cxii). We have learned to call that denial
Unitarianism. It was the ultimate scope of Arian opposition to what Christians
had always believed. But the Arian, though he did not come straight down from
the Gnostic, pursued a line of argument and taught a view which the speculations
of the Gnostic had made familiar. He described the Son as a second, or inferior
God, standing midway between the First Cause and creatures; as Himself made out
of nothing, yet as making all things else; as existing before the worlds of the
ages; and as arrayed in all divine perfections except the one which was their
stay and foundation. God alone was without beginning, unoriginate; the Son was
originated, and once had not existed. For all that has origin must begin to be.

Such is the genuine doctrine of Arius. Using Greek terms, it denies that the Son
is of one essence, nature, or substance with God; He is not consubstantial
(homoousios) with the Father, and therefore not like Him, or equal in dignity,
or co-eternal, or within the real sphere of Deity. The Logos which ... more

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Van Gogh's Self Protrate

Vincent Van Gogh was born in 1853 in Holland.  Van Gogh worked various jobs before becoming a theology student in Amsterdam.  But because of both professional and personal failures Van Gogh decided to "comfort the humble" and he went to live and work in a mining community.  While working and living in the mining community Van Gogh found himself drawn more and more to art.  So in 1880 Vincent moved to Brussels and then to Antwerp to study painting.  Van Gogh didn't start his career in art until he was 27.  He soon began to follow the influence of impressionism and began his own style (Rewald 225).  Throughout Van Gogh's life he battled with insanity, which could explain the painting of himself with his ear bandaged.  It is thought that Van Gogh might have ate his lead paint which could have possible caused his insanity.  
Vincent Van Gogh was one of the most influential contributors to the post-impressionist movement even though his paintings were not respected or accepted in his own time.  Post-impressionism refers not to a collective style but to a time period, which falls between 1880 and 1910.  Such a term as post-impressionism indicates the increasingly fragmented artistic scene that would come to characterize modern art of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (Stokstad 1039).  During Van Gogh's final years he began to paint in a very expressionistic manner because of his heightened emotional state at the insane asylum.  Van Gogh used these feeling to paint in a more emotional style than in a realistic style.  This emotional state can explain some of his paintings like "The Starry Night".  This painting was created while in the insane asylum and its seems like Van Gogh was already thinking about his death and about moving to a heavenly place above in the stars (www.tqn.com/library/weekly/aa.032798.htm).  
Vincent's painting style was like a child's painting with his simplicity of color and the roughness of his brushstrokes.  He was greatly influenced by realism because he wanted to create what was actually there with his bright colors put on the canvas in a rough style (Rewald 228).  Van Gogh was well know for his use of primary colors placed next to each other in large amounts that balance out as the viewer move back from the painting. Van Gogh's style for his self-portrait took after the style that Georges Seurat created called pointillism.  Van Gogh would put the paint on the canvas using only a paint spatula so his painting would have a large amount of texture and these globs of paint were very much like the dots of paint Seurat used in his paintings (www.tqn.com/library/weekly/aa.032798.htm).  In the self portrait of Van Gogh with his eat bandaged you can see the individual globs of paint which when placed next to each other give the painting texture.   Van Gogh was also greatly influenced by Japanese art and added his interpretation of a Japanese print to his self-portrait in the background.  Van Gogh used the simplicity of the Japanese forms combined with his use of primary colors in many of his paintings (Stokstad 1038).  Van Gogh's style could be seen as harsh and crude compared to many other painter of his time but this harshness is what sets him apart from other artists.  While his style was not accepted in his time soon in the future critics saw Van Gogh's profound impact on modern art, and his primitive and crude style of painting set a starting point that many artists followed to move forward into modernism (www.ndirect.co.uk/nas/masters/gogh/vaugh).          
Vincent Van Gogh's self portrait with bandaged ear was created in the hospital after Vincent had cut off part of his own ear.  He created this work in 1889 near the end of his life.  Vincent had been in an argument with his good friend Gauguin, a fellow artist that Vincent invited to come to Arles to work with him, and Vincent threatened Gauguin with a knife.  So instead of cutting Gauguin, Vincent acting on his insanity cut a piece of his own ear off and then later sent that piece of ear to a prostitute
(Stokstad 1038).  Vincent Van Gogh spent the end of his life in ... more

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  • R: Arianism R: Arianism Arianism A heresy which arose in the fourth century, and denied the Divinity of Jesus Christ. DOCTRINE First among the doctrinal disputes which troubled Christians after Constantine had recognized the Church in A.D. 313, and the parent of many more during some three centuries, Arianism occupies a large place in ecclesiastical history. It is not a modern form of unbelief, and therefore will appear strange in modern eyes. But we shall better grasp its meaning if we term it an Eastern attempt to ra...
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  • How artist are portrayed How artist are portrayed How artist are portrayed The most successful or famous artists are not always as happy as successful people are portrayed- living a life of fame, fortune, and glamour. The following examples will show some of the problems that four different artists have suffered in the past century. Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch painter who lived from March 30, 1853 to July 29, 1890. He is now one of the most famous painters in modern art (World Book 306). He only sold one painting in his living days, but now hi...