Area Of Spending Should Cover


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area of spending should cover NAFTA
In
January 1994, the United States, Mexico, and Canada implemented the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The goal of NAFTA is to create better
trading conditions through tariff reduction, removal of investment barriers, and
improvement of intellectual property protection. NAFTA continues to gradually
reduce tariffs on set dates and aims to eliminate all tariffs by the year 2004.
Before NAFTA was established, investing in Mexico was a difficult process.
Investors needed the Mexican Government's approval and were also required to
meet specific investment guidelines. These requirements necessitated investors
to export a set level of goods and services, utilize domestic goods and
services, and transfer technology to competitors. Under NAFTA, investors no
longer need government approval to invest and are treated as domestic investors.
NAFTA has also increased intellectual property rights and allowed companies to
obtain patents in Mexico and Canada. In the past, companies were hesitant to
export research and development intensive goods; with increased intellectual
property protection, however, exports of these goods has shown a definite
increase. As a result of better trading conditions, exports and imports of most
other goods have increased along with the research and development intensive
goods. In Mexico, the elimination of investment barriers has allowed investment
to expand. Increased trading and investment has then created many jobs, raised
the Gross Domestic Product, and lowered consumer prices. The macroeconomic
principles defined in Economics 103 relate to NAFTA's impact on aggregate supply
and demand, employment, investment, and their effects on national income. The
free trade established by MERCOSUR also involves countries within South America.
MERCOSUR, the Southern Common Market ( Mercado Common del Sur) was established
in 1991 after a series of other free trade treaties failed to meet the standards
of the countries involved. It is set up on the basis of free trade zones and
eventually to lead to a common market. Before MERCOSUR there was ALALC, the
Latin American Free Trade Association. It was formed in 1960 and set up free
trade zones through the periodic negotiations between the members of the
association. ALALC ended in the 1970's due to these negotiations because they
were left to the discretion of the countries involved and unfair practices
started to occur. After ALAC, came ALADI, the Latin American Integration
Association. Founded in 1980, it established economic preference zones instead
of free trade. This encouraged economic growth and increased actions and
agreements between countries that previously had no connections. In 1986
Argentina and Brazil signed a Treaty for Integration, Cooperation, and
Development which was originally set up to remove tariff barriers and tie
together the macroeconomic policies of the two countries. This Treaty is what
led to MERCOSUR. MERCOSUR is a process of integration to form a common market on
the foundations of open regionalism. In March of 1991 Paraguay and Uruguay
joined MERCOSUR and most recently Chile became a part of the market in 1996. The
goals set by the agreement are to create free transit of production goods and
lifting of non-tariff restrictions on transit goods. It was set up to adopt a
common trade policy with nations that are not a part of the market and to set up
a fixed common external tariff for all to follow. There are quite a few other
goals that was set by MERCOSUR including a clause that states that the countries
involved will be able to adjust their laws for the purpose of strengthening the
agreement. The main point of MERCOSUR is to set up free trade among South
American countries and to encourage new countries to join (americasnet.com).
Another related trade agreement conveying the benefits of international trade is
the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). A trade agreement that
conveys the positive outcomes of international trade is the General Agreement on
Trade and Tariffs (GATT). It was created in 1947 and like NAFTA promotes
international trade through the reduction of tariffs. Today, GATT encompasses
over one hundred countries and 90% of the world's trade goods (Sabir 1). There
have been eight different versions of GATT, each resulting in a new trade
agreement. The most recent is referred to as the Uruguay Round and is one of the
largest and most comprehensive trade pacts in history (Deng 1). The Uruguay
Round Agreement cuts tariffs by one-third, increases coverage for textiles,
clothing and agriculture and creates a new World Trade Organization
(Congressional Digest 258). The WTO settles dispute settlements, regulates the
policies agreed upon and reviews countries' trade practices and policies. In
addition, the Uruguay round proposes reductions in nontariff protective barriers
to trade (Gottheil 350). The Uruguay ... more

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Napoleon

In 1797, Napoleon Bonaparte became first consul after overthrowing the Directory and establishing the Consultate.  He had many achievements for France under educational, financial, administrative, legal and religious reforms.  However, these achievements are often exaggerated.  Napoleon was indeed the ‘heir’ of the revolution as he completed much of the work that the revolution had started, such as the creation of a Civil Code and the reforming of the education system.  Despite this, he also destroyed much of the revolution’s work.  He ignored and betrayed some of the revolution’s beliefs and much of his achievements were incomplete.  Napoleon’s achievements in Europe were mainly for his own purposes – he wanted to enhance his prestige and make France a great nation.  He appears to have had little interest in helping the European people.

Napoleon, although his main achievements centered on areas such as administration, had other remarkable, although minor, achievements in France.  He improved the appearance of French cities such as Paris by building bridges and canals and by planting trees at the sides of roads to protect them from the sun. This aided the beauty of Paris as it is today.  Napoleon also reformed the tax system, which meant that no one was tax exempt.

 One particular achievement, which may rank on the same level of importance as the Napoleonic code, but appears to be often overlooked in textbooks, is Napoleon’s founding of a national education system from primary to university.   The focus of his attention was secondary schools, of which he opened more.   Higher education also became more available in major cities.  Napoleon spent more money on education than anything else during his time in power.   However, Napoleon was somewhat inefficient in this achievement.   The educational system discriminated against females.   Napoleon saw education as being “not suitable” for girls.  Female students were to learn the very basics of education – how to read and write, and also how to do traditional female work such as nursing and embroidering.  Pupils had little choice over their career – most were forced into a military career.

What is considered to be Napoleon’s most significant achievement for France was his establishment of the ‘Napoleonic Code’. This was the codifying of all France’s civil, commercial and criminal law. This marked a trend to centralize and organize power on a national level. This code was successful as it formed the basis of many European legal systems. This ‘code’ was requested in many grievances, which were sent to Louis XVI and was demanded by the revolutionaries’. Thus Napoleon appeared to be truly the “heir of the revolution” as he had so claimed. The code took into account issues that the revolution had stood for, such as equality before the law and freedom of religion.

This Civil code also gave equal inheritance to all offspring should a parent die.  Marriage became a civil rather than a religious act.  Napoleon stopped a proposal for girls to marry at thirteen and for boys to marry at fifteen.  Instead, he increased the marital age to eighteen for girls and twenty for boys.  The civil code also permitted divorce.  On the other hand, according to John Merriman, this was also an incomplete achievement and did not satisfy everyone. Napoleon went against one of the revolution beliefs – equality for women. A woman’s wage went to her husband and she could also not buy any property without her husband’s or male relatives’ permission .   Women had to be committed to obedience and fidelity to their husbands. Napoleon further betrayed the opinions of most French people by declaring women were “ nothing more than machines for producing children”. He also betrayed the revolution by abolishing titles that the revolutionaries had abolished such as Duke or Prince. Although these titles were not heredity as before, it contrasted the aim of ‘equality’ in that people were still different in terms of social class.

Prior to the French Revolution, France was bankrupt.   Napoleon undertook vast financial reforms upon coming to power.  The French currency was stabilized and was the most stable in Europe until after World War 1.  In 1802, Napoleon was successful in achieving the balancing of the budget in France.  Taxes came from reasonable sources – ... more

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