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appetite or significant weight Bipolar disorder 3

Manic-depressive illness, or bipolar disorder, is a psychiatric disorder and brain disease is characterized by severe mood swings, from mania to depression. Bipolar Disorder is a biological disease of the brain. It is caused by a chemical imbalance.  It affects more than 2 million Americans and may have a strong genetic link Men and women are equally likely to develop this disabling illness.  Bipolar disorder changes lives, affects relationships, and can be deadly.  There is no know cure for the bipolar disorder but it can be treatable with medication and therapy.
1% of the population will have a manic depressive illness. Environmental factors such as death, separation and divorce may trigger the disorder. The illness manifests itself with the individual experiencing episodes of mania or elation followed by low mood or depression. The number of manic and depressive episodes varies greatly from person to person and most individuals experience "normal" periods between their manic and depressive episodes.
Manic depression can send a person plunging from a high state, where one may believe one has superhuman energy and abilities, into a pit of despair, where it may seem as if the only way out is suicide.
There are two types of bipolar, bipolar 1 and bipolar 2.  Bipolar 1 is diagnosed differently than bipolar 2. Bipolar I is diagnosed when person has a manic episode and has had no depressive episodes in the past. However, after the first manic episode occurs, depressive episodes often follow. Most people (over 90%) with Bipolar I experience two or more manic episodes in their lifetimes.  (site.health-center.com/brain/bipolar/basics.htm).
People with Bipolar II have depressed mood followed or preceded by a hypomanic episode. People with this type bipolar disorder never have a full-blown manic episode. Because of this, Bipolar II sometimes goes unrecognized or
is misdiagnosed as clinical depression.  
(site.health-center.com/brain/bipolar.basics.htm)
Sometimes a person with bipolar disorder can become so depressed or manic that she or he does not recognize the need for help and refuses treatment.  For example, when a person has become hopeless and suicidal, delusional, dangerous to others, or has lost the ability to function in everyday life, someone else may have to help him/her get into treatment. Most people with bipolar disorder are admitted to the hospital at some time during the course of their illness. During the course of their illness, it is possible that they may be admitted to the hospital against their wishes.  (site.health-center.com/brain/bipolar/basics.htm).
Individuals who have been placed on anti-depressants may exhibit manic symptoms in reaction to their medication.  People who have been treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), or who have been treated for other medical conditions (corticosteroids) may exhibit manic symptoms.  These disorders caused by medications or other forms of treatment may be  temporary conditions resolvable once the medication or treatment is removed.
The article, Going to Extremes, talks about the depression itself, the mania, the treatment, and the psychosis of bipolar.  It states that symptoms include a persistent sad mood; loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyed, significant change in appetite or body weight; difficulty sleeping or oversleeping and so on.  The mania is not normal and it is caused by at least overly inflated self-esteem; decreased need for sleep; increased talkativeness; racing thoughts, etc.  The psychosis symptoms of bipolar are hallucinations and delusions.  There are many medicines on the market for this disease, but not all of them work for the same person, some included lithium, valpoate, and carbamazepine.  (www.mentalnet.com/disorder/bipolar.htm).
Researchers are finding new data that states that bipolar is heredity; it's not a fact but still a theory.  They are also trying to find the gene that carries the bipolar disease, which this may help in finding a cure for it later in time.  (www.mentalnet.com/disorder/bipolar.htm).
Bipolar disease is not a rare disease.  Many famous people had it, all the way back to the 1800's, and still, today, we know little on curing it.  "Normal" people have it, handicapped children have it, and even the little strange may have it.  But some people still treat it as a disease they will get if they come in contact with it.  People are hurt and even abused for being depressed.  Bipolar is a series of ... more

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Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder
The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since
the 16th century. History has shown that this affliction can appear in
almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to
have had bipolar disorder. It is clear that in our society many people
live with bipolar disorder; however, despite the abundance of people
suffering from the it, we are still waiting for definite explanations
for the causes and cure. The one fact of which we are painfully aware
is that bipolar disorder severely undermines its victims ability to
obtain and maintain social and occupational success. Because bipolar
disorder has such debilitating symptoms, it is imperative that we remain
vigilant in the quest for explanations of its causes and treatment.
Affective disorders are characterized by a smorgasbord of symptoms
that can be broken into manic and depressive episodes. The depressive
episodes are characterized by intense feelings of sadness and despair
that can become feelings of hopelessness and helplessness. Some of the
symptoms of a depressive episode include anhedonia, disturbances in
sleep and appetite, psycomoter retardation, loss of energy, feelings of
worthlessness, guilt, difficulty thinking, indecision, and recurrent
thoughts of death and suicide (Hollandsworth, Jr. 1990 ). The manic
episodes are characterized by elevated or irritable mood, increased
energy, decreased need for sleep, poor judgment and insight, and often
reckless or irresponsible behavior (Hollandsworth, Jr. 1990 ). Bipolar
affective disorder affects approximately one percent of the population
(approximately three million people) in the United States. It is
presented by both males and females. Bipolar disorder involves episodes
of mania and depression. These episodes may alternate with profound
depressions characterized by a pervasive sadness, almost inability to
move, hopelessness, and disturbances in appetite, sleep, in
concentrations and driving.
Bipolar disorder is diagnosed if an episode of mania occurs whether
depression has been diagnosed or not (Goodwin, Guze, 1989, p 11). Most
commonly, individuals with manic episodes experience a period of
depression. Symptoms include elated, expansive, or irritable mood,
hyperactivity, pressure of speech, flight of ideas, inflated self
esteem, decreased need for sleep, distractibility, and excessive
involvement in reckless activities (Hollandsworth, Jr. 1990 ). Rarest
symptoms were periods of loss of all interest and retardation or
agitation (Weisman, 1991).
As the National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association (MDMDA)
has demonstrated, bipolar disorder can create substantial developmental
delays, marital and family disruptions, occupational setbacks, and
financial disasters. This devastating disease causes disruptions of
families, loss of jobs and millions of dollars in cost to society. Many
times bipolar patients report that the depressions are longer and
increase in frequency as the individual ages. Many times bipolar states
and psychotic states are misdiagnosed as schizophrenia. Speech patterns
help distinguish between the two disorders (Lish, 1994).
The onset of Bipolar disorder usually occurs between the ages of 20
and 30 years of age, with a second peak in the mid-forties for women. A
typical bipolar patient may experience eight to ten episodes in their
lifetime. However, those who have rapid cycling may experience more
episodes of mania and depression that succeed each other without a
period of remission (DSM III-R).
The three stages of mania begin with hypomania, in which patients
report that they are energetic, extroverted and assertive (Hirschfeld,
1995). The hypomania state has led observers to feel that bipolar
patients are addicted to their mania. Hypomania progresses into mania
and the transition is marked by loss of judgment (Hirschfeld, 1995).
Often, euphoric grandiose characteristics are displayed, and paranoid or
irritable characteristics begin to manifest. The third stage of mania
is evident when the patient experiences delusions with often paranoid
themes. Speech is generally rapid and hyperactive behavior manifests
sometimes associated with violence (Hirschfeld, 1995).
When both manic and depressive symptoms occur at the same time it
is called a mixed episode. Those afflicted are a special risk because
there is a combination of hopelessness, agitation, and anxiety that
makes them feel like they could jump out of their skin(Hirschfeld,
1995). Up to 50% of all patients with mania have a mixture of depressed
moods. Patients report feeling dysphoric, depressed, and unhappy; yet,
they exhibit the energy associated with mania. Rapid cycling mania is
another presentation of bipolar disorder. Mania may be present with
four or more distinct episodes within a 12 month period. There is now
evidence to suggest that sometimes rapid cycling may be a transient
manifestation of the bipolar disorder. This form of the disease
exhibits more episodes of mania and depression than bipolar.
Lithium has been the primary treatment of bipolar disorder since
its introduction in the 1960's. It is main function is to stabilize the
cycling characteristic ... more

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