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anxiety level for this exam because Anxiety and Athletic Perfomance

Anxiety and Athletic Performance



Introduction
Athletes today need to be able to cope with the anxiety and pressure that is placed on them in the competitive world of sports. A large deal of research has been done on examining the relationship between anxiety and performance within the field of athletics. This paper is going to show that the mind in an athlete has a lot to do with the result of the particular event. In order to show that anxiety in athletes is a significant problem this paper is going to be set up in three different areas in order to explain exactly how anxiety affects the athlete. The first section of the paper is going to explain the history and terminology on the study of anxiety in athletes. Next, this paper will show the results of numerous testing that has gone on in order to see the effects of anxiety in athletes. And the third and final section of this paper is going to explain what treatments that can help the athlete cope with the anxiety issues.

History and Terminology
     The reasons that previous research on this subject has been hard to synthesize is because of numerous reasons, those including methodological flaws' such as lack of clear definitions and also lack of clear theoretical construct.' In the following section terms will be established for words that will be throughout this paper. Also, this section will provide an overview of theories that have been used to clarify the relationship between anxiety and performance in athletes.
     In Edward's and Hardy's opinion the main problem that research on the relationship between anxiety and performance has encountered is that researchers have not defined all the specific terminology that is required to understand with this subject. The following operational definitions will be used for the terms anxiety and stress. "Stress is a state that results from the demands that are placed on the individual which require that person to engage in some coping behavior." Arousal is going to be considered to be a signal to the athlete that he/ she has entered into a stressful situation and is characterized buy physiological signs. Anxiety results from the athlete's perception that he/ she is not good enough for the particular situation, which will cause stress (Edward and Hardy).
     An early model that attempted to explain the relationship between arousal and performance was the inverted- U hypothesis.' It stated that when an athlete would become aroused he/ she would do well in the event of competition, but if the athlete became too aroused then performance would deteriorate. Although this model game some explanation to why performances deteriorated when individuals felt stress, it did not compare athletes that were in the same situation who had different arousal levels (Edward and Hardy).
     Because of the many faults that researchers found with the inverted U- hypothesis, researchers "attempted to account for the differences in performances of individuals through the concept of individualized zones of optimal functioning," or otherwise known as IZOFs. This theory states that each athlete has an optimal level of pre- performance anxiety, which results in peak performances. However, just like the inverted U, if the pre-performance anxiety lies outside the area of the IZOF, then performance will deteriorate. IZOFs can be determined by repeatedly measuring anxiety and performance. Edwards and Hardy explain that even though this is a better model then the inverted U- hypothesis, it still fails to explain the factors that account for the individual differences in performance among athletes (Edward and Hardy).
     The next theory that seemed to make an impact was the multidimensional anxiety theory which expanded off a previous theory called the reversal' theory. In this model it shows that cognitive anxiety (when there is a fear of failure) to have a negative linear relationship with performance. And as the opposite of cognitive anxiety, self- confidence has been found to have a positive linear relationship with performance. And finally, somatic anxiety (physiological symptoms) has been found to have an inverted - U shaped relationship with performance. Even though this model was a step up in recognizing many elements of anxiety, it still treats them as separate entities (Edward and Hardy).
     This next model named the catastrophe model' ... more

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Female circumcision

" A Look Into Female Genital Mutilation"
                             
"She only loses a little piece of the clitoris, just the part that protrudes. The girl doesn't miss it. She can still feel, after all. There is hardly any pain. Women's pain thresholds are so much higher than men's" (Denniston, 7).
This was a direct quote from an interview of people who unquestionably accept sexual mutilations. The interviews were conducted from 1979-1994 in Sudan and from 1984-1995 in parts of the United States and Europe. The exact location and date of the person who said this was not revealed. Sexual mutilations among females are also known as female circumcision, infibulations or clitoridectomy. Although there are variations in procedure, many times the above names are used interchangeable. The practice of female circumcision has long been a part of the lives of many young Muslim, Christian, Jewish and African girls.
The July 14, 1996, Los Angeles Times, states that more than 120 million women across a broad swath of the African continent have been subjected to the brutal genital mutilation.  Most are children between the ages of 4 and 10 when the ritual takes place. Although Westerners condemn it as torture, child abuse and a violation of human rights, it remains a revered rite of passage in parts of Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. According to the World Health Organization, circumcision dates back almost 4,000 years. No one knows exactly how the practice began, though scholars speculate its origins lay somewhere along the Nile Valley.
The reasons for performing this procedure are almost as numerous as it's consequences. The procedure can simply be a small but painful nick across the hood of the clitoris, but is typically more severe.  The most severe type of circumcision is called infibulation.  The clitoris, inner labia and most of the soft flesh of the labia are scraped or cut away.  Often with a double edged blade, scissors or even a shard of glass,  performed by a close relative,   midwife or barber. The July 14, 1996, Los Angeles Times, states:
"The child is then bound from waist to toes, and she will remain tied for weeks until scar tissue nearly seals the vagina.  She is left with just a pencil-thin hole close to the anus for urination and menstruation.  It can take the child a quarter of an hour to urinate, drop by drop.  She could develop a kidney or bladder infection.  When her menstrual periods start, they will last 10 days and she will be incapacitated by cramps nearly half the month caused by the near impossibility of flow passing through so tiny an opening.  The odor of soured blood will linger".
"If the wound heals improperly, shiny keloid scars will crisscross the otherwise soft tissue of the vulva.  Childbirth will be difficult, and the thick scars may have to be cut through to the rectum." The trauma of a child's pain transcends into adulthood.  A normal and happy sex life is almost never enjoyed, and I am influenced to believe that the magnitude of female circumcision is not understood by the child and rarely explained.  To some children it is a way to stop the painful teasing of others who believe that those who have not been cut are inferior.  For most it is the only way to become a woman.
Female circumcision, better known as Female Genital Mutilation, is an ugly monster finally rearing its head from out of the depths of time. It can attack a girl at any age, with a little prompting from her society, and the aid of an unsuspecting human wielding the knife. Usually, it is performed from a few days after birth to puberty, but in some regions, the torture can be put off until just before marriage or the seventh month of pregnancy (Samad, 52). The reality of female circumcision is that it is still accepted, regularly practiced, and willingly exercised as a rite of passage for young girls into womanhood. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is believed to have been performed at least 1400 - 2000 years ago beginning during an era know to the Muslims as "al-gahiliyyah" or "the era of ignorance". FGM is generally associated with ... more

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