Anti Communism In Vietnam


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anti communism in vietnam The War in Vietnam

The War in Vietnam


       Direct U.S. military participation in The Vietnam War, the nation's
longest, cost fifty-eight thousand American lives.  Only the Civil War and the
two world wars were deadlier for Americans.  During the decade of Vietnam
beginning in 1964, the U.S Treasury spent over $140 billion on the war, enough
money to fund urban renewal projects in every major American city.  Despite
these enormous costs and their accompanying public and private trauma for the
American people, the United States failed, for the first time in its history, to
achieve its stated war aims.  The goal was to preserve a separate, independent,
noncommunist government in South Vietnam, but after April 1975, the communist
Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) ruled the entire nation.
The initial reasons for U.S. involvement in Vietnam seemed logical and
compelling to American leaders.  Following its success in World War II, the
United States faced the future with a sense of moral rectitude and material
confidence.  From Washington's perspective, the principal threat to U.S.
security and world peace was monolithic, dictatorial communism emanating from he
Soviet Union.  Any communist anywhere, at home or abroad, was, by definition,
and enemy of the United States.  Drawing an analogy with the unsuccessful
appeasement of fascist dictators before World War II, the Truman administration
believed that any sign of communist aggression must be met quickly and
forcefully by the United States and its allies.  This reactive policy was known
as containment.
In Vietnam the target of containment was Ho Chi Minh and the Vietminh
front he had created in 1941.  Ho and his chief lieutenants were communists with
long-standing connections to the Soviet Union.  They were also ardent Vietnamese
nationalists who fought first to rid their country of the Japanese and then,
after 1945, to prevent France from reestablishing its former colonial mastery
over Vietnam and the rest of Indochina.  Harry S. Truman and other American
leaders, having no sympathy for French colonialism, favored Vietnamese
independence.  But expanding communist control of Eastern Europe and the triumph
of the communists in China's civil was made France's war against Ho seem an
anticommunist rather than a colonialist effort.  When France agreed to a quansi-
independent Vietnam under Emperor Bao Dai as an alternative to Ho's DRV, the
United States decided to support the French position.
The American conception of Vietnam as a cold war battleground largely
ignored the struggle for social justice and national sovereignty occurring
within the country.  American attention focused primarily on Europe and on Asia
beyond Vietnam.  Aid to France in Indochina was a quid pro quo for French
cooperation with America's plans for the defense of  Europe through the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization.  After China became a communist state in 1949, the
stability of Japan became of paramount importance to Washington, and Japanese
development required access to the markets and raw materials of Southeast Asia.
The outbreak of war in Korea in 1950 served primarily to confirm Washington's
belief that communist aggression posed a great danger to Asia . Subsequent
charges that Truman had "lost" China and had settled for a stalemate in Korea
caused succeeding presidents to fear the domestic political consequences if they
"lost" Vietnam.  This apprehension, an overestimation of American power, and an
underestimation of Vietnamese communist strength locked all administrations from
1950 through the 1960s into a firm anticommunist stand in Vietnam.
Because American policy makers failed to appreciate the amount of effort
that would be required to exert influence on Vietnam's political and social
structure, the course of American policy led to a steady escalation of U.S.
involvement.  President Dwight D. Eisenhower increased the level of aide to the
French but continued to avoid military intervention, even when the French
experienced a devastating defeat at Dien Bien Phu in the spring of 1954.
Following that battle, an international conference at Geneva, Switzerland,
arranged a cease-fire and provided for a North-South partition of Vietnam until
elections could be held.  The United States was not a party to the Geneva
Agreements and began to foster the creation of a Vietnamese regime in South
Vietnam's autocratic president Ngo Dinh Diem, who deposed Bao Dai in October
1955, resisted holding an election on the reunification of Vietnam.  Despite
over $1 billion of U.S. aid between 1955 and 1961, the South Vietnamese economy
languished and internal security deteriorated.  Nation building was failing the
South, and, in 1960, communist cadres created the National Liberation Front
(NLG) or Vietcong as its enemies called it, to challenge the Diem regime.
President John F. Kennedy concurred with his predecessor's domino theory
and also believed that ... more

anti communism in vietnam

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The Vietnam War

The Vietnam War The Vietnam War is truly one of the most unique wars ever fought by the Unites States of by any country. It was never officially declared a war (Knowll, 3). It had no official beginning nor an official end. It was fought over 10,000 miles away in a virtually unknown country. The enemy and the allies looked exactly the alike, and may by day be a friend but by night become an enemy (Aaseng 113). It matched the tried and true tactics of World War Two against a hide, run, and shoot technique known as “Guerrilla Warfare.” It matched some of the best trained soldiers in the world against largely an untrained militia of untrained farmers. The United States' soldiers had at least a meal to look forward to unlike the Communist Vietnamese soldiers who considered a fine cuisine to be cold rice and, if lucky, rat meat. The Vietnam War matched the most technically advanced country with one of the least advanced, and the lesser advanced not only beat but humiliated the strongest military in the world (Aaseng, 111). When the war was finally showing signs of end, the Vietnamese returned to a newly unified communist country while the United Stated soldiers returned to be called “baby killers”, and were often spat upon. With the complexities of war already long overdrawn because of the length of the war it is no wonder the returning solders often left home confused and returned home insane. Through an examination of the Vietnam War, in particular an event know as the My Lai Massacre, and the people involved with both, it can be proven that when the threshold for violence of a person is met or exceeded, the resulting psychological scarring becomes the most prominent reason for war being hell. Although officially, the Vietnam Conflict had neither a beginning nor an end, for the purpose of this paper it can be best examined through the decade the United States was involved: February 6, 1965 - August 30, 1975. During World War Two the French had been a major ally to the United States in the defeat of Adolph Hitler and the Axis Powers. France occupied and claimed the small coastline country of Vietnam in Indochina. In this region there had been recent Communist uprisings funded by the USSR The Vietnamese were willing to accept Communism in return for what they had been fighting for over 2000 years: self rule. In 1950 the United States, owing a debt of gratitude towards France, sent several advisors to aid French control in Vietnam. Over the next decade and a half, the United States would send an entire Army and Navy to aid the French in maintaining control in South Vietnam, which had separated from the Communist North Vietnam by treaty in 1954. In early August of 1964 a small Vietcong (term used to identify South Vietnamese in favor of communism and unification) patrol boat had an encounter with a United States war ship in the Gulf of Tonkin. Gunfire was exchanged, and, in the end, President Johnson agreed to allow aggressive retaliation. On February 6, 1965, the United States began the bombing of North Vietnamese cities, marking the unofficial start of the Vietnam War (Winthrop, 853-861). In the years of the war to follow, the media began to play a role. Photo-journalists would accompany platoons on missions and, through the aid of cameras and video equipment, relate the stories to the American at home. Every night for the length of the war news programs were saturated with reports of the happenings in Vietnam and death tolls for the day. Grossly eggzrated enemy casualty numbers were reported, giving the public a false view of happenings of the war. Suddenly on January 30, 1968 a Vietcong uprising, now commonly known as the Tet Offensive, took place. Tet is the Vietnamese new year and is commonly accepted as a cease-fire. With a cease-fire in effect, most major cities' defensives were less tight. As if all at once, more than one hundred South Vietnamese cities were being shelled with Vietcong gunfire. Included in the cities were Saigon, capital of South Vietnam and home to the United ... more

anti communism in vietnam

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  • A: The Vietnam War A: The Vietnam War The Vietnam War The Vietnam War is truly one of the most unique wars ever fought by the Unites States of by any country. It was never officially declared a war (Knowll, 3). It had no official beginning nor an official end. It was fought over 10,000 miles away in a virtually unknown country. The enemy and the allies looked exactly the alike, and may by day be a friend but by night become an enemy (Aaseng 113). It matched the tried and true tactics of World War Two against a hide, run, and shoot t...
  • N: The War in Vietnam N: The War in Vietnam The War in Vietnam The War in Vietnam Direct U.S. military participation in The Vietnam War, the nation\'s longest, cost fifty-eight thousand American lives. Only the Civil War and the two world wars were deadlier for Americans. During the decade of Vietnam beginning in 1964, the U.S Treasury spent over $140 billion on the war, enough money to fund urban renewal projects in every major American city. Despite these enormous costs and their accompanying public and private trauma for the American p...
  • T: The Vietnam War T: The Vietnam War The Vietnam War The Vietnam War The Vietnam War is truly one of the most unique wars ever fought by the Unites States of by any country. It was never officially declared a war (Knowll, 3). It had no official beginning nor an official end. It was fought over 10,000 miles away in a virtually unknown country. The enemy and the allies looked exactly the alike, and may by day be a friend but by night become an enemy (Aaseng 113). It matched the tried and true tactics of World War Two against a hide, ...
  • I: Containment Of Communism I: Containment Of Communism Containment Of Communism The Cold War is the closest the world has ever come to complete destruction. In this period of time, two world super powers were in a stalemate economically and militarily and were constantly competing to be the superior. The Cold War started as result of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union had some differences on their perspectives of the world. United States being the richest country in the world promoted democracy and capitalism in the world. The newl...
  •  : Richard Nixon : Richard Nixon Richard Nixon Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon was the thirty-seventh president of the United States and the only president to have resigned from office. He was on his was to success after receiving his law degree from Duke University Law School in 1937. California Republicans persuaded Nixon in 1946 to be their candidate to challenge Jerry Voorhis, the popular Democratic Congressman, for his seat in the United States House of Representatives. He accuses Voorhis of being soft on Communism. ...
  • C: No title C: No title What role should the U.S. play in World Defense? English II-3rd Hour Research Paper What role should the United States play in World Defense? To some, this may seem like a simple question to answer, and to others it may be a question that can be debated and talked about for hours at end. This question which I am dealing with has probably come up several times in this century, especially in the last fifty(50) years or so. First of all, let me start out with some statistics and facts that may sta...
  • O: The War in Vietnam O: The War in Vietnam The War in Vietnam Direct U.S. military participation in The Vietnam War, the nation's longest, cost fifty-eight thousand American lives. Only the Civil War and the two world wars were deadlier for Americans. During the decade of Vietnam beginning in 1964, the U.S Treasury spent over $140 billion on the war, enough money to fund urban renewal projects in every major American city. Despite these enormous costs and their accompanying public and private trauma for the American people, the United St...
  • M: Vietnam Post 1950 M: Vietnam Post 1950 Vietnam Post 1950 Describe and assess the role of the USA in Indo-China in the period 1945-1954 In 1943 President Roosevelt suggested that Indochina come under the control of four powers after the war, proposing that the eventual independence of the Indochinese might follow in twenty to thirty years time. No one knew whether the policy would require American troops, but America was firm on the fact that independence could not be taken by the Vietnamese, but would be granted to the Vietnamese by ...
  • M: The Vietnam War M: The Vietnam War The Vietnam War The Vietnam War The Vietnam War is truly one of the most unique wars ever fought by the Unites States of by any country. It was never officially declared a war (Knowll, 3). It had no official beginning nor an official end. It was fought over 10,000 miles away in a virtually unknown country. The enemy and the allies looked exactly the alike, and may by day be a friend but by night become an enemy (Aaseng 113). It matched the tried and true tactics of World War Two against a hide, ...
  • U: Vietnam War3 U: Vietnam War3 Vietnam War3 From the 1880s until World War II, France governed Vietnam as part of French Indochina, which also included Cambodia and Laos. The country was under the control of an emperor, Bao Dai. In 1940 Japanese troops invaded and occupied French Indochina. In December of that year, Vietnamese nationalists established the League for the Independence of Vietnam, or Viet Minh, seeing the turmoil of the war as an opportunity for resistance to French colonial rule. The United States demanded that...
  • N: Jane Fonda N: Jane Fonda Jane Fonda Who is Jane Fonda? This is a question often asked by many people with no one right answer. She is an actress, a fitness guru, a former communist sympathizer, and most importantly, an antiwar activist during the Vietnam War. Although Jane Fonda was honored as one of the 100 Women of the Century, her infamous name is one Vietnam veterans will never forget. As American soldiers were losing their lives, she traveled into enemy-territory, defaming American POWs, many of whom were torture...
  • I: Vietnam Retaliation In The U.S I: Vietnam Retaliation In The U.S Vietnam Retaliation In The U.S Vietnam was the first war ever fought without any censorship. Without censorship, things can get terribly confused in the public mind. - Gen William C Westmoreland, US Army (http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/13476.html) It is said that a war cannot be fought without the support of the people. Much so was this related to the Vietnam conflict. I say the Vietnam Conflict in that the United States never actually declared war on North Vietnam after its c...
  • S: Americans Attitude Change in the 60s S: Americans Attitude Change in the 60s Americans Attitude Change in the 60s Question 1: For many Americans, the 1960s began with JFKs Age of Camelot, an era that seemed to exude confidence in American institutions. Yet, by the early 1970s, those expectations and attitudes seemed to be replaced by a sense of bitterness and cynicism. Discuss and analyze the causes and consequences of this profound attitudinal shift. Question 3: How did official US policy towards Vietnam change between 1950 and 1975? How did American leaders li...
  • M: McCarthyism M: McCarthyism McCarthyism The McCarthy Hearings Senator Joseph McCarthy instilled fear into the minds of the Americans with his anti- Communist thinking, with his ideals. Senator McCarthy, during 1950-1954, disrupted the United States with the HUAC ( House of Un-American Activity Committee) Hearings. These hearings brought government workers, college professors, playwrights and Hollywood screen writers, actors, artists, musicians, gays, Jews and anyone with a goatee under suspicion. Joseph McCarthy was an u...
  •  : The Rise of the Manchus : The Rise of the Manchus The Rise of the Manchus The Rise of the Manchus Although the Manchus were not Han Chinese and were strongly resisted, especially in the south, they had assimilated a great deal of Chinese culture before conquering China Proper. Realizing that to dominate the empire they would have to do things the Chinese way, the Manchus retained many institutions of Ming and earlier Chinese derivation. They continued the Confucian court practices and temple rituals, over which the emperors had traditionally p...
  • I: Sixties I: Sixties Sixties Sixties: The Sixties were an extremely exciting and revolutionary time of great social and technological change. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- [Category]: History [Paper Title]: Sixties [Text]: The Sixties were an extremely exciting and revolutionary time of great social and technological change. The changes throughout this era included: assassination, unforgettable fashions in clothing, new music styles, civil rights, gay and womens liberat...
  • N: No title N: No title A Review Of A Peoples History Of A Review of A Peoples History of The United States A Peoples History of the United States concentrates on the personal experiences and struggles of people who lived in the United States from 1492-present. It is a view of history from the common mans perspective, rather than the view of the leaders and upper class of this country. The book revolves around the views of history from the oppressed point of view. Howard Zinn makes it clear from the beginning that ...
  •  : Jfk In Vietnam : Jfk In Vietnam Jfk In Vietnam jfk in vietnam From the 1880s until World War II, France governed Vietnam as part of French Indochina, which also included Cambodia and Laos. The country was under the formal control of an emperor, Bao Dai. From 1946 until 1954, the Vietnamese struggled for their independence from France during the first Indochina War. At the end of this war, the country was temporarily divided into North and South Vietnam. North Vietnam came under the control of the Vietnamese Communists who had ...
  • V: The Tet Offensive V: The Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive was a major assault by the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong against South Vietnam and the U.S. forces situated there. It was not only a psychological advance for the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong, but also gave the United States a notion that the war wasnt going to be an easy win, and the chances of winning the war were, in fact, very slim. The war initially was an attempt to limit the spread of communism throughout Asia. Similar to Korea, Vietnam was in a...
  • I: A War America Could Have Won I: A War America Could Have Won A War America Could Have Won North Vietnam was battling for ownership of South Vietnam, so they could be a unified communist nation. To prevent the domino effect and further spread of communism, the USA troops in 1965 went into action against the Viet Cong until 1975. Not only did the greatest superpower in the world get bested by a third world nation, but also lost badly. Perhaps this war could have been won, or prevented in the first place. The USA could have and should have won this war, with...
  • E: The Hippie Movement That Arose From Vast Political E: The Hippie Movement That Arose From Vast Political The Hippie Movement That Arose From Vast Political Changes The Hippie Movement That Arose From Vast Political Changes Massive black rebellions, constant strikes, gigantic anti-war demonstrations, draft resistance, Cuba, Vietnam, Algeria, a cultural revolution of seven hundred million Chinese, occupations, red power, the rising of women, disobedience and sabotage, communes & marijuana: amongst this chaos, there was a generation of youths looking to set their own standard - to fight against the es...
  • T: Communism vs Democracy T: Communism vs Democracy Communism vs Democracy Communism, a concept or system of society in which the major resources and means of production are owned by the community rather than by individuals. In theory, such societies provide for equal sharing of all work, according to ability, and all benefits, according to need. Some conceptions of communist societies assume that, ultimately, coercive government would be unnecessary and therefore that such a society would be without rulers. Until the ultimate stages are reached,...
  • N: Truman Doctrine N: Truman Doctrine Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine was the impetus for the change in United States foreign policy, from isolationist to internationalists; thus we were drawn into two wars of containment and into world affairs. The Truman Doctrine led to a major change in U.S. foreign policy from its inception - aid to Turkey and Greece - to its indirect influence in Korea and Vietnam. The aftermath of World War II inspired the U.S. to issue a proclamation that would stem Communist influence throughout the worl...
  • A: John F kennnedy A: John F kennnedy John F kennnedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy, (1917-1963), 35th PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES The youngest ever elected to the presidency and the first of the Roman Catholic faith, John F. Kennedy won the ELECTION of November 1960 by a razor-thin margin, but after taking office he received the support of most Americans. They admired his winning personality, his lively family, his intelligence, and his tireless energy, and they respected his courage in time of decision. During his relatively brief te...
  • M: afsdsafdg M: afsdsafdg afsdsafdg I want what they want, what every other guy who came over here and spilled his guts and gave everything he had wants: for our country to love us as much as we love it, Rambo / First Blood Part II (George P. Cosmatos, 1985) the plea of every Vietnam vet who went to a war they didn't want but did the best they could. It is often argued that lack of public support doomed the Vietnam war effort. In this line of reasoning, public protests against the war undermined troop morale and the mi...