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anglo saxon culture Emersons self reliance

R.W. Emerson's Self-Reliance
The essay has three major divisions: the importance of self-reliance (paragraphs 1-17), self-reliance and the individual (paragraphs 18-32), and self-reliance and society (paragraphs 33-50). As a whole, it promotes self-reliance as an ideal, even a virtue, and contrasts it with various modes of dependence or conformity.
"Self-Reliance"
Paragraphs 1-17. The Importance of Self-Reliance.
Emerson begins his major work on individualism by asserting the importance of thinking for oneself rather than meekly accepting other people's ideas. As in almost all of his work, he promotes individual experience over the knowledge gained from books: "To believe that what is true in your private heart is true for all menthat is genius." The person who scorns personal intuition and, instead, chooses to rely on others' opinions lacks the creative power necessary for robust, bold individualism. This absence of conviction results not in different ideas, as this person expects, but in the acceptance of the same ideasnow secondhand thoughtsthat this person initially intuited.
The lesson Emerson would have us learn? "Trust thyself," a motto that ties together this first section of the essay. To rely on others' judgments is cowardly, without inspiration or hope. A person with self-esteem, on the other hand, exhibits originality and is childlikeunspoiled by selfish needsyet mature. It is to this adventure of self-trust that Emerson invites us: We are to be guides and adventurers, destined to participate in an act of creation modeled on the classical myth of bringing order out of chaos.
Although we might question his characterizing the self-esteemed individual as childlike, Emerson maintains that children provide models of self-reliant behavior because they are too young to be cynical, hesitant, or hypocritical. He draws an analogy between boys and the idealized individual: Both are masters of self-reliance because they apply their own standards to all they see, and because their loyalties cannot be coerced. This rebellious individualism contrasts with the attitude of cautious adults, who, because they are overly concerned with reputation, approval, and the opinion of others, are always hesitant or unsure; consequently, adults have great difficulty acting spontaneously or genuinely.
Emerson now focuses his attention on the importance of an individual's resisting pressure to conform to external norms, including those of society, which conspires to defeat self-reliance in its members. The process of so-called "maturing" becomes a process of conforming that Emerson challenges. In the paragraph that begins with the characteristic aphorism "Whoso would be a man, must be a nonconformist," he asserts a radical, even extreme, position on the matter. Responding to the objection that devotedly following one's inner voice is wrong because the intuition may be evil, he writes, "No law can be sacred to me but that of my nature . . . the only right is what is after my constitution, the only wrong what is against it." In other words, it is better to be true to an evil nature than to behave "correctly" because of society's demands or conventions.
The non-conformist in Emerson rejects many of society's moral sentiments. For example, he claims that an abolitionist should worry more about his or her own family and community at home than about "black folk a thousand miles off," and he chides people who give money to the poor. "Are they my poor?" he asks. He refuses to support morality through donations to organizations rather than directly to individuals. The concrete act of charity, in other words, is real and superior to abstract or theoretical morality.
In a subdued, even gentle voice, Emerson states that it is better to live truly and obscurely than to have one's goodness extolled in public. It makes no difference to him whether his actions are praised or ignored. The important thing is to act independently: "What I must do is all that concerns me, not what the people think . . . the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude." Note that Emerson contrasts the individual to society"the crowd"but does not advocate the individual's physically withdrawing from other people. There is a difference between enjoying solitude and being a social hermit.
Outlining his reasons for objecting to conformity, Emerson asserts that acquiescing to public opinion wastes a ... more

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TO WHAT EXTENT WAS CHRISTIANITY A UNIFYING INFLUENCE IN THE HISTORY OF EUROPE?

"Europe was a Christian creation, not only in essence but in minute detail"

The above statement can perhaps best sum up the relationship between Christianity and Europe throughout the ages. Christianity has been the strongest single influence in the history of Europe. Regardless of the century, no discussion would be complete without reference being made, at least in small part, to the Church. It is true that in recent centuries this influence has declined significantly, but nevertheless one could argue that it still plays an important part in the lives of many people. Throughout history Christianity has been both a unifying force and also a force for disunity. During the Dark Ages it was the only unifying force. By the Middle Ages   people defined themselves by their religion and in Europe this religion had become Christianity. Through it's missionary work, it's monasteries, it's education, it pilgrimages, it's crusades, it's influence on art and architecture and it's Papacy it had united the peoples of Europe. By the thirteenth century all of Europe was Christian. It's ideas penetrated every aspect of life and every political and economic arrangement. It's churches could be seen in the major cities as well as the mountainside villages of rural Europe. It's bishop's were part of the politics of countries at the highest level and for many centuries it's clergy played the role of civil servants to the European rulers. It helped form the foundations of modern human rights and law across Christendom. By the end of the reformation Christianity had passed it's peak of influence on European society, and so in evaluating it's influence, it is perhaps best to end this paper at that point. Also because of the enormous time span covered by history of Christianity and the amount of material it includes it is very difficult to cover everything and so it is necessary to be selective. However it is worth giving a brief history of the birth of this religion.

At the beginning of the first century a new religion was born and started to spread rapidly across the Roman Empire. Its source of inspiration was Jesus. It was different to the other religions of the day in a profound way. It was universal, offering all things to all men, proclaiming an afterlife, triumph over death, and presenting a road to salvation for all men and women. It emphasised the inner life and filled the spiritual void created by the Roman lifestyle.  Yet it was one of many religions. There were many rivals, the mystery religions of Persia, Syria and Egypt were popular at the time and of course there was Judaism. Nothing at the time suggested this Jewish heresy could rival the other religions.  Nevertheless Christianity spread relatively quickly, mainly due to the missionary work of St. Paul and, also, St. Peter. St Paul's journeys took him to Palestine, Asia, Macedonia, Greece, Rome and finally Spain. In addition this new religion spread quickly throughout the Roman garrisons and from there was carried by the soldiers through the Empire. In early fourth century Emperor Decius attempted to wipeout the Christian faith, the great persecution lasted thirteen years, but in 313 the 'Edict of Milan', in which religious tolerance was granted to Christians and previous anti-Christian legislation was repealed, was passed. Soon the Emperor Constantine was converted and became the first Christian emperor. Thus the Empire was identified with Christianity. It soon became the state religion and by the fifth century the empire had become exclusively Christian.   However the break-up of the Roman Empire in the West and its invasion by barbarian tribes soon threatened this Christian unity.
During the Dark ages, from the fall of the Roman Empire to the birth of the Carolingian Empire, monasticism was, perhaps, the greatest unifying force for Europe within Christianity and, although weakened, this force continued to have some influence in the Middle Ages. Monasticism's origins lay in the East. The first monks had, in the third century, settled in the Egyptian Dessert near the Nile  and the first cenobites, monks grouping into enclosures formed by cells built around a central chapel, were gathered by Pachomius in ... more

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  • A: To What Extent Was Christianity A Unifying Influen A: To What Extent Was Christianity A Unifying Influen To What Extent Was Christianity A Unifying Influence In The History Of Europe? Europe was a Christian creation, not only in essence but in minute detail The above statement can perhaps best sum up the relationship between Christianity and Europe throughout the ages. Christianity has been the strongest single influence in the history of Europe. Regardless of the century, no discussion would be complete without reference being made, at least in small part, to the Church. It is true that in recen...
  • N: Emersons self reliance N: Emersons self reliance Emersons self reliance R.W. Emerson\'s Self-Reliance The essay has three major divisions: the importance of self-reliance (paragraphs 1-17), self-reliance and the individual (paragraphs 18-32), and self-reliance and society (paragraphs 33-50). As a whole, it promotes self-reliance as an ideal, even a virtue, and contrasts it with various modes of dependence or conformity. Self-Reliance Paragraphs 1-17. The Importance of Self-Reliance. Emerson begins his major work on individualism by asserting...
  • G: TO WHAT EXTENT WAS CHRISTIANITY A UNIFYING INFLUEN G: TO WHAT EXTENT WAS CHRISTIANITY A UNIFYING INFLUEN TO WHAT EXTENT WAS CHRISTIANITY A UNIFYING INFLUENCE IN THE HISTORY OF EUROPE Europe was a Christian creation, not only in essence but in minute detail The above statement can perhaps best sum up the relationship between Christianity and Europe throughout the ages. Christianity has been the strongest single influence in the history of Europe. Regardless of the century, no discussion would be complete without reference being made, at least in small part, to the Church. It is true that in recent...
  • L: The Industrial Revolution (Wendy) L: The Industrial Revolution (Wendy) The Industrial Revolution (Wendy) 1.profoundly modified much of human experience. 2.It changed patterns of work 3.transformed the social class structure 4.altered the international balance of political and military power, giving added impetus to ongoing Western expansion into non-Western lands. 5.helped ordinary people gain a higher standard of living as the widespread poverty of the pre-industrial world was gradually reduced. Where and why did the Industrial Revolution begin?(Wendy) *BRITAIN* a...
  • O: Brief History of the English Language O: Brief History of the English Language Brief History of the English Language OLD ENGLISH UNTIL 1066. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE Old English (500-1100 AD) Old English Words The Angles came from an angle-shaped land area in contemporary Germany. Their name Angli from the Latin and commonly-spoken, pre-5th Century German mutated into the Old English Engle . Later, Engle changed to Angel-cyn meaning Angle-race by A.D. 1000, changing to Engla-land . Some Old English words which have survived intact include: feet, geese, teeth, me...
  •  : Seneca Falls : Seneca Falls Seneca Falls Title: The road from SENECA FALLS. (cover story) Source: New Republic, 08/10/98, Vol. 219 Issue 6, p26, 12p, 3bw Author(s): Stansell, Christine Abstract: Reviews several books related to women\'s suffrage and feminism. The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady STANTON and Susan B. Anthony, Volume One: In the School of Anti-Slavery, 1840-1866,\' edited by Ann D. Gordon; Harriet STANTON Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage,\' by Ellen Carol DuBois; Woman Suffrage and the Orig...
  • S: Pre-Civil War New Orleans S: Pre-Civil War New Orleans Pre-Civil War New Orleans New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River. Most of the city is situated on the east bank, between the river and Lake Pontchartrain to the north. Because it was built on a great turn of the river, it is known as the Crescent City. New Orleans, with a population of 496,938 (1990 census), is the largest city in Louisiana and one of the principal cities of the South. It was established on the high ground nearest the mouth of the Mississip...
  • A: A Critical Appraisal of: Beowulf and Gilgamesh A: A Critical Appraisal of: Beowulf and Gilgamesh A Critical Appraisal of: Beowulf and Gilgamesh A Critical Appraisal of: Beowulf and Gilgamesh There are many differences and critical comparisons that can be drawn between the epics of Beowulf and Gilgamesh. Both are historical poems which shape their respected culture and both have major social, cultural, and political impacts on the development of western civilization literature and writing. Before any analysis is made, it is vital that some kind of a foundation be established so that a furthe...
  • X: Normans And Middle English X: Normans And Middle English Normans And Middle English The year 1066 had a resounding impact on the course of English history. William the First, Duke of Normandy, conquered England and took it as a stronghold in his reign. The French rule over England lasted for several centuries and brought about innumerable changes to the English state, language, culture and lifestyle. William imported French rulers to take over English government and religious posts. The French were not only the new aristocracy in England, but the new ...
  • O: History O: History History Pre-Civil War New Orleans New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River. Most of the city is situated on the east bank, between the river and Lake Pontchartrain to the north. Because it was built on a great turn of the river, it is known as the Crescent City. New Orleans, with a population of 496,938 (1990 census), is the largest city in Louisiana and one of the principal cities of the South. It was established on the high ground nearest the mouth of the M...
  • N: Normans And Middle English N: Normans And Middle English Normans And Middle English The year 1066 had a resounding impact on the course of English history. William the First, Duke of Normandy, conquered England and took it as a stronghold in his reign. The French rule over England lasted for several centuries and brought about innumerable changes to the English state, language, culture and lifestyle. William imported French rulers to take over English government and religious posts. The French were not only the new aristocracy in England, but the new ...
  •  : In Anglo-Saxon literature and most likely in Anglo : In Anglo-Saxon literature and most likely in Anglo In Anglo-Saxon literature and most likely in Anglo-Saxon times, men were measured by many of the same aspects of life that men are measured by today\'s standards. Men of that time period were godless, fearless, fame seeking and most of all, courageous. Everyone was in search of these qualities and they achieved them by completing daring deeds, withstanding harsh conditions and they loved beating the odds. These qualities still live on in us. Beowulf not only killed a terrifying monster, the mons...
  • C: Brief History of the English Language C: Brief History of the English Language Brief History of the English Language OLD ENGLISH UNTIL 1066. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE Old English (500-1100 AD) Old English Words The Angles came from an angle-shaped land area in contemporary Germany. Their name Angli from the Latin and commonly-spoken, pre-5th Century German mutated into the Old English Engle. Later, Engle changed to Angel-cyn meaning Angle-race by A.D. 1000, changing to Engla-land. Some Old English words which have survived intact include: feet, geese,...
  • U: immigration descrimination U: immigration descrimination immigration descrimination Attention statement: Give me your tired, your poor, your huddles masses yearning to be free these are the words that have greeted hundreds of thousands of immigrants coming to our country on the gates of Ellis Island. INTRO America is an idea, a set of beliefs about people and their relationships and the kind of society which holds the best hope of satisfying the needs each of us brings as an individual. For countless immigrants, the struggle to arrive in America...
  • L: Anglos L: Anglos Anglos In Anglo-Saxon literature and most likely in Anglo-Saxon times, men were measured by many of the same aspects of life that men are measured by today\'s standards. Men of that time period were godless, fearless, fame seeking and most of all, courageous. Everyone was in search of these qualities and they achieved them by completing daring deeds, withstanding harsh conditions and they loved beating the odds. These qualities still live on in us. Beowulf not only killed a terrifying monster, t...
  • T: Pre-Civil War New Orleans T: Pre-Civil War New Orleans Pre-Civil War New Orleans History New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River. Most of the city is situated on the east bank, between the river and Lake Pontchartrain to the north. Because it was built on a great turn of the river, it is known as the Crescent City. New Orleans, with a population of 496,938 (1990 census), is the largest city in Louisiana and one of the principal cities of the South. It was established on the high ground nearest the mouth of the M...
  • U: Introduction: Literature offers a strong and passi U: Introduction: Literature offers a strong and passi Introduction: Literature offers a strong and passionate voice for the past. The literature of the Native Canadian is a voice we, the people of Canada, can no longer ignore. There is little to be gained by dwelling on the past. Nevertheless, there is much to be realized by accepting what has passed, with all of its mistakes and dust we might otherwise wish to hide under the carpets. English literature, since at least the sixteenth century, has a firm grounding in Canadian history. As a white Angl...
  • R: The Mistreatment of Women in the Works of Zora Nea R: The Mistreatment of Women in the Works of Zora Nea The Mistreatment of Women in the Works of Zora Neale Hurston Essays on Authors The Mistreatment of Women in the Works of Zora Neale Hurston Society is suffering from a number of serious social problems related to women, and to the interaction between the two sexes. Male domination and patriarchy have been under challenge by feminists and the women's movement. The economic, social and political subjection of women around the world, the violence brought against women and their confinement has been...
  • E: Pre-Civil War New Orleans E: Pre-Civil War New Orleans Pre-Civil War New Orleans New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River. Most of the city is situated on the east bank, between the river and Lake Pontchartrain to the north. Because it was built on a great turn of the river, it is known as the Crescent City. New Orleans, with a population of 496,938 (1990 census), is the largest city in Louisiana and one of the principal cities of the South. It was established on the high ground nearest the mouth of the Mississip...
  • Texas Politics Texas Politics Texas Politics Each one of us, as a citizen of Texas and of the United States of America, has certain responsibilities and tasks to accomplish. Included in such tasks are the roles we are given and those we choose: the role of a father, an aunt, a doctor, or an elected official. In the role of an elected official, one has minimum standards of conduct and performance to adhere to--they are the basis of what one is judged by when it comes down to election time. Texas State Representative One of th...
  • History History History Pre-Civil War New Orleans New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River. Most of the city is situated on the east bank, between the river and Lake Pontchartrain to the north. Because it was built on a great turn of the river, it is known as the Crescent City. New Orleans, with a population of 496,938 (1990 census), is the largest city in Louisiana and one of the principal cities of the South. It was established on the high ground nearest the mouth of the M...
  • Native Canadians in Literature Native Canadians in Literature Native Canadians in Literature Introduction: Literature offers a strong and passionate voice for the past. The literature of the Native Canadian is a voice we, the people of Canada, can no longer ignore. There is little to be gained by dwelling on the past. Nevertheless, there is much to be realized by accepting what has passed, with all of its mistakes and dust we might otherwise wish to hide under the carpets. English literature, since at least the sixteenth century, has a firm grounding in Ca...
  • Grendel Grendel grendel Beowulf and Grendel are actually the same stories in the fact that they are based on the same epic Beowulf. Beowulf, that is told of here is translated by Kevin Crossley-Holland, and there are many different translations which makes Beowulf the epic so interchangeable. Although Beowulf and Grendel seem very similar they do have many differences as well. Reading the two stories back to back gives you the impression of how many differences there are. For example, Beowulf is writt...
  • Effect of the Normans on Middle English Effect of the Normans on Middle English Effect of the Normans on Middle English Introduction The year 1066 had a resounding impact on the course of English history. William the First, Duke of Normandy, conquered England and took it as a stronghold in his reign. The French rule over England lasted for several centuries and brought about innumerable changes to the English state, language, culture and lifestyle. William imported French rulers to take over English government and religious posts. The French were not only the new aristocrac...
  • Archery Archery archery The crossbow is a weapon of antiquity. There is plausible evidence that the Chinese developed the weapon as early as 1500 BC Surviving examples exist in China from as far back as the third century BC These Han dynasty relics display a great deal of sophistication. The lock (chi) is comprised of a cast bronze box which holds a rotating nut and a two-lever seer and trigger that locks the release in a set position. Roman soldiers captured and ransomed in Sogdiana in central Asia in the firs...