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an exchange economy Facts that lead to poverty: th

Poverty occurs in most parts of the world.  Nevertheless, the more serious and problematical poverty takes part in the third world and the southern parts of the globe.  First of all, we have to clearly define the word “poverty”.  In a broad sense, it means that people within this “poverty” region are poor or have a lower average income per capita than other regions.  To a deeper approach, we refer “poverty” as people have low educational backgrounds, lack of food supplies, or people with lower standard of livings, etc.  According to the Webster’s New World Dictionary, the word “poverty” can be defined as: 1) the condition or quality of being poor  2) deficiency; inadequacy  3) scarcity  (Webster’s p.461).  Generally in this essay, we will examine the facts that lead to the poverty of these third world and southern countries.  
The first and the most serious problem that causes by poverty are hunger, or preciously, malnutrition.  We can find these kinds of problems almost all over Africa and some other underdeveloped countries.  These were witnessed by thousands of people through TV, radio, newspaper, journals, etc.  “In the early 1980s, the mass media dramatically brought us the picture of hunger from Africa – starving children, skin and bone, with their bloated bellies, too weak to even stand up.” (Warnock p.1)  At the same time, people living in more developed countries or wealthy states are enjoying different kinds of delicious meals and dumping whatever they don’t like.  Why would this happen?  Can we refer this to the government or economical policies that rise the problems?  To further explore the problem of hunger in Africa, we can easily relate this to poverty.  In fact, there may be some other problems that cause the hunger.  For example, local drought in the African Sahel that damages the cropping; which in turn shorten the local food supplies.  The other factor is the rapid population growth in Africa.  Increasing capita means an increase demand of food.  People in Africa are rarely taught the knowledge of birth-control.  “If you have money you eat well, no matter how fast the population around you is growing and no matter how short the supplies of energy or land or fertilizer.” (Kent p.77)  According to Kent’s view, we shall see that money can buy off the problem of hunger easily.  But why Africa is still facing a lot of famine problems within its region?  This can be explained by the “chain-effect” of poverty and hunger.  If people are poor, they won’t have enough to produce in order to exchange for money.  Without money, they will suffer from hunger and famine and not be able to produce efficiently due to their lack of energy.  Now that we can see the problem is magnetized.  
The other issues that rise poverty in Africa is the irrational economical policies and huge amount of financial debts.  “According to U.N. Economic Commission for Africa, the debt-service obligations within African countries dedicating an estimated 34 percent of the income generated by the export of goods and services to interest payments.”  (Reeves p.115)  We can see that many of the incomes generated by the working forces are obligating for the foreign debt payments.  One of the irrational policies that spread hunger in Africa is the structural adjustment program (SAPs):
…promoted by the World Bank and other donors.  Central to adjustment programs, cuts in government food subsidies have triggered riots in many African capitals during the last several years and have meant that many families are unable to purchase sufficient amounts of bread, sugar, or other basic commodities… Throughout the continent, SAPs have called for the reduction of the often-bloated civil service sector, triggering widespread urban unemployment, and have also prescribed repeated currency devaluation, thus reducing the purchasing power of consumers.  (Reeves p.124)
The third factor that triggers hunger is the militarization Africa.  Throughout the years, in wars were fought inside and outside the lands of Africa.  These wars had negatively weakened the production of the people.  “War turns farmlands into battle zones, removes able-bodied producers from the agricultural sector, disrupts transport and marketing, and directs the bulk of foreign exchange earnings to the military.” (Reeves p.111)  As ... more

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Vietnam's Economy

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Vietnam's Economy
Vietnam is a unique civilization with highly cultured people. I chose this country because it is filled with natural beauty, tranquil rural settings, and bustling urban centers. In this period of renovation, Vietnam is emerging as an economic powerhouse in South East Asia. From the bustling commercial center of Ho Chi Minh City to the gracious capital of Ha Noi, local business is flourishing and international companies are lining up to invest in new projects. The nation, strangled by years of war, is now flexing its muscles. To succeed in international business is to understand the uniqueness of the culture you will encounter. The purpose of this report is to inform you of some of the business customs you could encounter in Vietnam.
The climate of Vietnam is subtropical. The average temperature for the country is 84 degrees. The country receives most of their annual rainfall in the summer. The southern moisture air currents move across the land during the summer. When traveling to Vietnam on business during the summer, be prepared for unexpected rainfall.
The unit of currency in Vietnam is the New Dong. One United States dollar is approximately worth 15,000 Dong. The Dong has constantly fallen in value for the last decade. In Vietnam you are not allowed to export the Dong, however, you are allowed to import other forms of currency. You should pay your bills with Dong instead of low denominations of American currency. The standard of living in Vietnam is much lower than the U.S.s. The value of the Dong is low, and the price for food and supplies are high. Many Vietnamese dont own cars, the preferred method of transportation is a simple bicycle, or occasionally a bus.
A valid passport and visa are required for all foreigners visiting Vietnam. Vietnamese embassies and consulates issue visas in Vietnam. Business visas are good for six months and provide for multiple entries. Sponsorship by a licensed Vietnamese enterprise is required.
Vietnams major exports are petroleum, unprocessed agricultural and marine products, coal, clothing, footwear, ceramics, gemstones, and silk. About 71% of Vietnam businesses are agricultural, 19% services, and 10% industrial. Vietnams major trade partners are Japan, Germany, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, France, and South Africa. The agricultural products produced in Vietnam range from rice, cassava and sweet potatoes to natural rubber, livestock, and sugarcane. Shrimp, mollusks, crab, and other shellfish are main products of fishing. The industrial section of Vietnam produces paper products, cement, textiles, fertilizers, and electronics.
Business procedure has more ritual with government officials than it does within the private area. When you meet with government officials, a local person will accompany you to make your introduction. Shake hands with everyone present in the room. Expect a soft handshake. Avoid any other touching, such as, slapping people on the back or grabbing their arms. Loud behavior, laughing, and talking should also be avoided. Immediately after the introduction it is appropriate to exchange business cards. Vietnamese prefer to exchange cards with both hands. In a government office, your hosts will show you where to sit. Most meetings take place in a conference room rather than in someone's office. The higher the rank of the person you meet, the more likely that you will meet in a conference room. When you are offered tea, you should accept it. Even if you are not a tea drinker, you should at least sip it. During your introductory conversations, stay away from discussing politics or the war. It is quite common for Vietnamese officials to ask your opinion on how to solve the remaining problems of US-Vietnamese relations. It is always a good idea to brush it off with a smile. Introductory pleasantry may take some time. Do not push to start talking business. Let that come from the other side. When they feel that the relationship has advanced far enough, they will start asking questions about the topic you have come to discuss.
Though Vietnamese is the official language of Vietnam there are several other languages spoken, such as, Chinese, English, and French. There are also several different religions in Vietnam. The religious groups include Buddhist, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs, Islam, Protestant, Cao Dai, and Hoa Hao. Religion is a very ... more

an exchange economy

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