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Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where
people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who
were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied
opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When
these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of
people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise
have had. These gains have led to very real changes. Affirmative action programs
have not eliminated racism, nor have they always been implemented without
problems. However, there would be no struggle to roll back the gains achieved if
affirmative action policies were ineffective. The implementation of affirmative
action was America's first honest attempt at solving a problem, it had
previously chosen to ignore. In a variety of areas, from the quality of health
care to the rate of employment, blacks still remain far behind whites. Their
representation in the more prestigious professions is still almost
insignificant. Comparable imbalances exist for other racial and ethnic
minorities as well as for women. Yet, to truly understand the importance of
affirmative action, one must look at America's past discrimination to see why,
at this point in history, we must become more "color conscious".
History Of Discrimination In America: Events Leading To Affirmative Action. The
Declaration of Independence asserts that "all men are created equal."
Yet America is scarred by a long history of legally imposed inequality. Snatched
from their native land, transported thousands of miles-in a nightmare of disease
and death-and sold into slavery, blacks in America were reduced to the legal
status of farm animals. A Supreme Court opinion, Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857),
made this official by classifying slaves as a species of "private
property." Even after slavery was abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment in
1865, American blacks, other minorities, and women continued to be deprived of
some of the most elementary right of citizenship. During the Reconstruction,
after the end of the Civil War, the Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868,
making blacks citizens and promised them the "equal protection of the
laws." In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment was passed, which gave blacks the
right to vote. Congress also passed a number of civil rights laws barring
discrimination against blacks in hotels, theaters, and other places. However,
the South reacted by passing the "Black Codes, " which severely
limited the rights of the newly freed slaves, preventing them in most states
from testifying in courts against whites, limiting their opportunities to find
work, and generally assigning them to the status of second or third class
citizen. White vigilante groups like the Klu Klux Klan began to appear, by
murdering and terrorizing blacks who tried to exercise their new rights.
"Legal" ways were also found for circumventing the new laws; these
included "grandfather clauses", poll taxes, white only primary
elections, and constant social discrimination against and intimidation of
blacks, who were excluded form education and from any job except the most
menial. In 1883, the Supreme Court declared a key civil rights statute, one that
prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, unconstitutional. And in
1896, Plessy v. Ferguson (163 U.S. 537 ), the Court declared that the
state of Louisiana had the right to segregate their races in every public
facility. Thus began the heyday of "Jim Crow" legislation. In Justice
John Marshall Harlan's lone dissent, he realized it was a mockery. He wrote,
" We boast of the freedom enjoyed by our peoples above all other peoples.
But it is difficult to reconcile that boast with a state of the law which,
practically, puts a brand of servitude and degregation upon a large class of our
fellow citizens, our equals before the law. This thin disguise of 'equal'
accommodations for passengers in railroad coaches will not mislead anyone, or
atone for the wrong this day done." Not until sixty years later, in Brown
v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (347 U.S. 483 ), was Plessy
overturned. Chief Justice earl Warren declared the unanimous opinion of the
court by saying: "We cannot turn the clock back to 1868, when the Amendment
was adopted, or even to 1896, when Plessy v. Ferguson was written." In
today's world, "separate educational facilities are inherently
unequal." This decision sparked racial tensions all across America. in
1957, President Eisenhower had to call federal troops into Little Rock,
Arkansas, after the state's governor forcibly barred black children from
entering white schools. In 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested and fined, for not
moving to the back of a public bus, ... more
Find essay on An Even Greater Woman
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs, a.k.a venereal diseases, infectious diseases passed from one person to another during sexual contact. STDs are the most common infections known. More than 12 million people in the United States, including 3 million teenagers, are infected with STDs every year. The United States has the highest STD rate in the world about one in ten Americans will contract an STD during his or her lifetime. People who do not know they are infected risk infecting their sexual partners and, in some cases, their unborn children. If left untreated, these diseases may cause pain or may destroy a woman's ability to have children. Some STDs can be cured with a single dose of antibiotics, but AIDS cannot be cured. Those most at risk for contracting STDs are people who have unprotected sexwithout using a condom, people who have multiple partners, and people whose sex partners are drug users who share needles. Statics show that Americans between the ages of 16 and 24 are most likely of catching STDs than older adults, because younger people usually have multiple sexual partners than an older person in a long-term relationship. Teenagers may be embarrassed to tell their sexual partners they are infected Teenagers may also be embarrassed or unable to seek medical attention for STDs. This means that they only more likely to pass the disease to other young people and have a greater risk of suffering the long-term consequences of untreated STDs. STDs are transmitted by infectious bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and single-celled organisms called protozoa that live in warm, moist parts of the body, like the genital area, mouth, and throat. Most STDs are spread while having sex, but oral sex can also spread disease. Some STDs are passed from a mother to her child while pregnant, when the disease enters the baby's bloodstream, during childbirth as the baby passes through the birth canal, or after birth, when the baby drinks infected breast milk. AIDS can be transmitted by blood contact such as open wounds, between people who share infected needles or received through an injection of infected blood. Some people believe that STDs can be transmitted through shaking hands or other casual contact, or through contact with inanimate objects such as clothing or toilet seats, but they cant. Chlamydeous, is from trachoma is bacterium, is the most commonly transmitted STD in the United States. About 500,000 chlamydia infections are reported each year. Since chlamydia may not produce noticeable symptoms, it usually goes untreated. People who do not know they are infected may not seek medical attention and may continue to have sex, not knowing they're spreading the disease. When symptoms do develop, men may experience painful or burning urination or a discharge from the penis. Women may experience burning urination, vaginal secretion, or mild lower abdominal pain. If left untreated, chlamydia damages reproductive tissue, causing inflammation of the urethra in men and maybe in women. Chlamydia infections are diagnosed by testing penile and vaginal discharge. Gonorrhea, is made by neisseria gonorrhea, infects the membranes in certain genital organs. About 325,000 gonorrhea infections are reported each year in the United States. Like chlamydia, gonorrhea is often symptomless, and men are more likely to develop symptoms than women are. Symptoms may be similar to those of chlamydia and include burning urination and penile or vaginal discharge. Babies born to mothers with gonorrhea are at risk of infection during childbirth; such infections can cause eye which can make the baby blind. Gonorrhea is treatable with several antibiotics. A potentially life-threatening STD is syphilis, which comes from Treponema palladiums. Experts say there are about 100,000 new cases of syphilis in the United States each year. The first part of syphilis is a genital sore, called a chancre comes after infection and then goes away. If it is not treated, the infection can grow over years, affecting the vertebrae, brain, and heart, which makes you coordination skills go down, meningitis, and produces strokes. Syphilis is easily treated with penicillin. Syphilis cases have gone down since 1982. Syphilis cases are ten times more common in the southern United States than in other parts of the country. Syphilis can be hard on ... more
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A: Great Wall
Great Wall The Great Wall of China To the northwest and north of Beijing, a huge, serrated wall zigzags it's way to the east and west along the undulating mountains. This is the Great Wall, which is said to be visible from the moon. This massive wall has not only been one of the Ancient Seven Wonders of the World, but it has also been inspiration for many artists, and writers. The building of the Great Wall is one of the biggest tragedy?s, but through this tragedy arose triumph with the wall, be...
N: Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise hav...
STD'd Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs, a.k.a venereal diseases, infectious diseases passed from one person to another during sexual contact. STDs are the most common infections known. More than 12 million people in the United States, including 3 million teenagers, are infected with STDs every year. The United States has the highest STD rate in the world about one in ten Americans will contract an STD during his or her lifetime. People who do not know they are inf...
E: Witch Of Wall Street
Witch Of Wall Street A musical based on the life of Americas first great female financier, Hetty Green After watching the play, The Witch of Wall Street, and giving it a lot of thought I have analyzed the questions we were given and decided that just answering one wouldnt do the play or the storyline any justice. Therefore I have decided to run through the play in segments answering all five questions in the process of doing so. 1- Describe the plot of the play. 2- Describe the obstacles and o...
V: Eves apology in defense of wom
Eves apology in defense of wom In one of Aemilia Lanyer's poems, Eve's Apology in Defense of Women, a reinterpretation of the past has been presented as a means to demand a better present, and future, for women. Though Lanyer lived when the world frowned upon women writers, she managed to be one of the few published woman poets of the Renaissance (p 1059). This fact of such a great accomplishment for a woman in the world did not, however, changes the forms in which it was acceptable for a wo...
E: A public relations proposal for the american egg b
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Feminism Of what historic and contemporary concern is it that the architecture profession has been, and continues to be, strongly male dominated in Australia (currently 90% of registered architects in NSW are men). Ideally, what proportion of the profession should women occupy and why? From the start of human history, we always experience certain level of inequality between sexes. It can be seen everywhere around the world and is a concern to everyone, both men and women. This inequality is an i...
: Frederick Nietzsche
Frederick Nietzsche Born: 1844. Rocken, Germany Died: 1900. Weimar, Germany Major Works: The Gay Science (1882), Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883-1885), Beyond Good & Evil (1886), On the Genealogy of Morals (1887), MAJOR IDEAS Self deception is a particularly destructive characteristic of West Culture. Life is The Will To Power; our natural desire is to dominate and reshape the world to fit our own preferences and assert our personal strength to the fullest degree possible. Struggle, through which i...
G: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome On any given day in the United States... 10,657 babies are born. (US Census Bureau). Twenty of these babies are born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Twenty may seem as though it is not a lot, but when you compare it to the fact that this number is more than HIV positive, Muscular Dystrophy, Spina Bifida and Down Syndrome combine it creates a whole new parameter. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a direct result of a womans competed disregard for the fetus. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FA...
R: Plato and love
Plato and love Societys current strides in the advancement of feminist ideas and the equality of the sexes, tends to create ideas that women and men can sufficiently survive without the other. However, in a time a homosexuality and liberation of womens subordination of men, humanity cannot ignore the fact that neither sex can survive without the other. Love and the want of a soul mate keeps each member of man and womankind in constant search of the perfect person with whom to become one. Yet i...
E: America in World War II
America in World War II Was World War II a Good War For America? One of the most important wars ever fought was World War II. In the midst, the Nazis were in control of most of Europe, the Soviet Union was causing more deaths than any other country, and Japan had taken over parts of China. The United States of America was stuck in the middle of all this. They had to deal with the Nazis and deciding when to join the war, meanwhile, Japan was breathing down their necks with attacks. What was Ameri...
A: The Great Gatsby
The Great Gatsby The Great Gatsby as Modernist Literature By the end of World War I, many America authors were ready to change their ways and views on writing. Authors were tired of tradition and limitations. One of these writers was F. Scott Fitzgerald. Fitzgerald was a participant in the wild parties with bootleg liquor, but he was also a critic of this time. His book, The Great Gatsby is an excellent example of modernist literature, through its use of implied themes and fragmented storyline. ...
T: Prenatal Development
Prenatal Development Prenatal development is the period in development from conception to the onset of labor. Perinatal period is the period beginning about the seventh month of pregnancy and continuing until about four weeks after birth. Postnatal development is the period in development the follows directly after birth. The germinal stage is the stage lasting about ten -fourteen days following conception before the fertilized egg becomes implanted in the uterine wall. The embryonic stage is th...
E: Great Wall Of China Report
Great Wall Of China Report The Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China is truly one of the greatest architectural achievements in recorded history. The longest structure ever built, it is about 6,700 kilometers (4,163 miles) long and made entirely by hand. This wall is said to be visible from the moon. It crosses Northern China, from the East coast to Central China (Karls, 1). This massive wall is not only one of the ancient wonders of the world, but it also has been the inspiration of many ...
R: marijuana legalization
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: serial killers
serial killers Night Stalker Richard Ramirez: From the Bowels of Hell by Joseph Geringer Crescendo of Terror Late in the 20th Century, Hell glutted on humanity. Its first bloodletting of that season of the Devil occurred on the warm evening of June 28, 1984, when an earth-bound Lucifer found his way into the small Glassel Park apartment of 79-year-old Jennie Vincow. Throughout the Los Angeles area a damp humidity had oppressed the air that day, and when the evening came and the temperature sli...
W: Alexander The Great
Alexander The Great Introduction Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander the Great, was one of the greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia, then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably either July 20 or 26, 356 B.C. Alexander was considered a child from his birth until 341 B.C. His princehood lasted from 340 to 336 B.C. In 336 B.C. Philip II, his father, was assassinated, thus making Alexander king. Alexander became a...
O: The sun also rises
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M: 3 Non Traditional Religions Voodoo, Spiritualism,
3 Non Traditional Religions Voodoo, Spiritualism, Cults Religion is primary agent of social control in our society. Due to its communally held beliefs and principles, we have a foundation on which we can rest the laws, values, and the main doctrine, of almost any society. Here in America, we have tremendous freedom in both establishing and in choosing the religion of our choice. This freedom has given birth to many non-traditional religions and practices. When discussing the topic of social cont...
A: Violence In America..Will It Ever End?
Violence In America..Will It Ever End? Today in St. Paul two people were murdered. It has been reported that the two were fighting with a third party about a phone call that was made. The suspect is in custody and the case is under investigation, a reporter in the ten oclock news reports. Spouse and child abuse are on the rise. This year alone over 6 million men, women, and children were victims of severe physical attacks from their spouses or parents(article 16)*, another reporter reports...
N: Multiple Births
Multiple Births Multiple Births Multiple births are rare in humans with twins as being the most common form of this event. Multiple births can arise in many different combinations of ways but the probability of giving birth to more than one child remains fairly constant when compared to the entire human race. The chances of multiple births can also vary from race and genetic background. Scientist and researchers do not know what the exact cause of these variations is but many of them feel that i...
Jeremiah Johnson The Mountain Man
Jeremiah Johnson The Mountain Man In this movie, one may observe the different attitudes that Americans had towards Indians. The Indians were those unconquered people to the west and the almighty brave, Mountain Man went there, forgetting all the troubles he knew, and away from civilization. The mountain man is going in search of adventure but as this adventure starts he finds that his survival skills are not helping him since he cant even fish and as he is seen by an Indian, who watches him...
Daily life in Sparta
Daily life in Sparta Sparta, also called Lacedaemon, was a city in ancient Greece, and one of the most famous ancient Greek cities of the Peloponnesus. Found in the hills of Mount Taygetus many would consider was a brutal group of militaristic people. Although, this to some extent may be true most of the written information was derived from the ancient city-state of Athens, who were great enemies of the Spartan society. After the Messenian war the Spartan people moved into the Taygetus mountains...
Eve s apology
Eve s apology Aemilia Lanyer uses irony and sarcasm in her poem, Eve\'s Apology in Defense of Women. She uses sarcasm to address the issue of female inequality, and uses imagery and ironic undertones to make the poem effective. In the first stanza, Lanyer begins the poem with an image of women being equal with men and at times even better. She states that Pilate should have listened to his wife when she asked him to spare her savior, Jesus\' life. Lanyer is establishing the theme of defending ...
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