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american folk songs Beloved And Toni Morrison

 Toni Morrison, the first black woman to receive Nobel Prize in Literature, was born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18, 1931 in Lorain, Ohio, U.S.A. She was the second of four children of George Wofford, a shipyard welder and Ramah Willis Wofford. Her parents moved to Ohio from the South to escape racism and to find better opportunities in the North. Her father was a hardworking and dignified man. While the children were growing up, he worked three jobs at the same time for almost 17 years.  Her mother was a church-going woman and she sang in the choir. At home, Chloe heard many songs and tales of Southern black folklore. The Woffords were proud of their heritage.
    Chloe attended an integrated school. In her first grade, she was the only black student in her class and the only one who could read. She was friends with many of her white schoolmates and did not encounter discrimination until she started dating. She hoped one day to become a dancer like her favorite ballerina, Maria Tallchief, and she also loved to read. Her early favorites were the Russian writers Tolstoy and Dostoyevski, French author Gustave Flaubert and English novelist Jane Austen. She was an excellent student and she graduated with honors from Lorain High School in 1949.
    Chloe Wofford then attended the prestigious Howard University in Washington, D.C., where she majored in English with a minor in classics. Since many people couldn't pronounce her first name correctly, she changed it to Toni, a shortened version of her middle name. She joined a repertory company, the Howard University Players, with whom she made several tours of the South. She saw firsthand the life of the blacks there, the life her parents had escaped by moving north. Toni Wofford graduated from Howard University in 1953 with a B.A. in English. She then attended Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, and received a master's degree in 1955.
At Howard she met and fell in love with a young Jamaican architect, Harold Morrison. They married in 1958 and their first son, Harold Ford, was born in 1961. Toni continued teaching while helping take care of her family. She also joined a small writer's group as a temporary escape from an unhappy married life.  Each member of this group was required to bring a story or poem for discussion. One week, having nothing to bring, she quickly wrote a story loosely based on a girl she knew in childhood who had prayed to God for blue eyes. The story was well received by the group and then Toni put it away thinking she was done with it. Her marriage deteriorated, and while pregnant with their second child she left her husband, left her job at the university, and took her son on a trip to Europe. Later, she divorced her husband and returned to her parents' house in Lorain with her two sons.
     In the fall of 1964 Morrison obtained a job with a textbook subsidiary of Random House in Syracuse, New York as an associate editor. Her hope was to be transferred soon to New York City. While working all day, the housekeeper took care of her sons and in the evening Morrison cooked dinner and played with the boys until their bedtime. When her sons were asleep, she started writing. She dusted off the story she had written for the writer's group and decided to make it into a novel. She drew on her memories from childhood and expanded them with her imagination so that the characters developed a life of their own. She found writing exciting and challenging. Other than parenting, she found everything else boring by comparison.
    In 1967 she was transferred to New York and became a senior editor at Random House.  The Bluest Eye was eventually published in 1970 to much critical acclaim, although it was not commercially successful. From 1971-1972 Morrison was the associate professor of English at the State University of New York at Purchase while she continued working at Random House. In addition, she soon started writing her second novel where she focused on a friendship between two adult black women. Sula was published ... more

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Composers Of 19th And 20th
This essay will consist of information about nine composers and one piece of
work that they are known for dating from 1862 to 1990. The names of these
composers are: Aaron Copeland, Claude Debussy, Charles Ives, Scott Joplin,

Bessie Smith, Louis Armstrong, Leonard Berstein, Igor Stravinsky, and Arnold

Schoenberg. The first composer I will discuss will be Aaron Copeland (1900

1990). Mr. Copeland was born in Brooklyn, New York USA to Russian American
immigrant parents. His style is strongly tonal with polychords, polyrhythm,
changing meters and percussive orchestration. His influences include his teacher

Nadia Boulanger, Picasso, Stravinsky and Ernest Hemmingway. Some notable history
about Mr. Copeland is that he created Appalachian Spring for Martha Graham and
he used American folklore as the subject with many of his works. The piece I
will be discussing will be Appalachian Spring Section VII Theme and Variations
on Simple Gifts I (1943-1944). The media of this piece is the orchestra and the
texture is definitely homophonic. The melody is songlike, lyrical, and
danceable, with conjunct motion. The harmony is tonal because the tune is easily
recognizable. This piece is in duple meter with a moderate tempo. The form is
theme and variations because the theme is recognizable throughout the entire
piece. One of the programmatic ideas is that this piece is to be performed as a
ballet. The ballet is a story of a pioneer celebration in spring around a newly
built farmhouse in the Pennsylvania hills in the 1800s. The second composer
is Claude Debussy (1862 1918). My Debussy was born in St. Germainen-laye,

Paris France. His style is typically impressionistic, he used unprecedented tone
color with subtle changes in timbre. He used frequent instrument solos and the
woodwinds were used in unusual registers. Mr. Debussy also used catatonic scales
and whole tone scales. Some of his influences were Richard Wagner, Asian music,
literary and pictorial ideas and Russian model music. The music of The Prelude
to the Afternoon Faun (1894) is a piece of work that Mr. Debussy wrote after
reading the poem by Stephane Mallarme. "This poem evokes the dreams and erotic
fantasies of a pagan forest creature who is half man, half goat". The media of
this piece is orchestra with shifting textures. The melody is based on the E

Major scale, and the harmony is tonal. The meter is very vague with a moderate
tempo, and the form is definitely ABA with a vagueness of rhythm and distinct
cadences. Charles Ives is the third composer I will discuss (1874 1954). Mr.

Ives was born in Danburry Connecticut, USA. His style is eclectic with his
influences being his father who was a bandmaster, the war, personal experiences,
and Horetio Parker. His music also has features of American tradition. Mr. Ives
is also known as a transcendentalist. A transcendentalist is someone that lives
on intuition. Some notable history about Mr. Debussy is that he made his"living" selling insurance so he could spend time composing his music. He
also won a Pulitzer Prize. The representative work I will discuss is Three

Places in New England Putmans Camp, Redding, Connecticut (1912). The media is
orchestra, with the texture having a distorted polyphony. The melody has super
imposed familiar melodies against a chromatic background. The harmony is tonal
with a complex rhythm and a fast tempo. The form is a one movement orchestral
work, most commonly known as ABA form. Three Places in New England is a set of
three pieces for an orchestra to excite memories of American history and
landscapes. Putmans Camp is a childs impression of a Fourth of July picnic
with fireworks and carnival rides. The fourth composer I will be discussing is

Scott Joplin (1868 1917). Scott Joplin, the "King of Ragtime"
music, was born near Linden, Texas on November 24, 1868. He moved with his
family to Texarkana at the age of about seven. Mr. Joplins style of music is
ragtime yet he was trained in "classical" music and wrote a ballet and two
operas along with many piano rags. His influences were his parents, and Julius

Weiss, who became his teacher when he was eleven. His music is a unique blend of

European classical styles combined with African American harmony and rhythm.

True-life events and real places inspired many of Mr. Joplins songs. One of
his first compositions was The Great Crush Collision, which was inspired by a
great locomotive crash near Waco Texas. The piece I will be discussing in this
essay is Maple Leaf Rag (1899) ... more

american folk songs

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