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aggressive action Social Security

Social Security is a hot topic of debate today, since most American's believe
that the system is near collapse. The trust fund that Americans have been paying
into for Social Security is likely to dry up in 2029 due to the large number of
baby boomers heading into retirement. Franklin Roosevelt set up Social security
to help the people that had worked and Struggled all their lives in honest toil.
Social security was set up to accomplish two main goals. The first goal of
Social Security is to act as a disability or life insurance policy that protects
almost all Americans. Currently, there are seven million survivors of deceased
workers and four million disabled Americans that receive income support from
Social Security. The second goal is to provide lifetime retirement benefits that
rise with inflation. Social Security payments for retirees are needed to keep
half of the elderly Americans above the poverty line. A large number of baby
boomers believe that they won't see a dime's worth of Social Security benefits,
and most younger people assume that once they have reached retirement the
program will be gone. There have been many proposed solutions to the Social
Security problem. A first possible solution is to dramatically change the Social
Security Payroll Tax. Another proposal is to change amount of benefits of the
provided by Social Security. A third reform proposal includes investing Social
Security money in stocks either by the government investing the money or by
setting up mandatory IRA investing. Another major development in the future of
Social Security is the recent proposals made by President Clinton's Advisory
Committee on Social Security. In January of this year the Advisory Committee on
Social Security presented a report of strategies to save Social Security.
Shortly after the 261 page report was released there was a huge increase of
debates and criticism over the future of Social Security. The issue facing
American today is when and how to reform Social Security. Although the American
public and political groups are unwilling to accept the burdens of social
security reform, extensive reform is needed soon to continue paying the current
benefits to American citizens. A change in the Social Security tax is a possible
factor of reform to bring the Social Security program back on track. Currently
the Social Security tax is a flat-rate tax paid on all employment earnings up to
a specified limit. Due to inflation the limit is increased every year currently
it is just over $60,000. This tax is much harder on a lower income individual
because the higher income individual is only taxed on their income that is below
a certain amount set every year. It has been proposed that if the limit on the
payroll tax were lifted, two-thirds of the projected Social Security deficit
would be eliminated. Once the limit on the payroll tax is lifted a rise in the
tax rate of the employers and the employees by 1.1% is predicted to be enough to
solve Social Security's problems. This is assuming that two evasive actions take
place. First the government will have to keep its hands of this extra tax
revenue gained by the tax increases. Second the proposed solution will only have
a chance to work if it is started immediately while the baby boomers are still
able to add a little more cash to the trust fund for there own retirement. This
solution isn't likely to be implemented by today's political system. The
advisory council on Social Security would not pursue the lift of the limit
because the support of the wealthy voters for Social Security reform would be
lost. Americans are also weary of Social Security tax increases. The middle and
lower class voters would also not support a Social Security tax increase. A
recent poll by Money magazine found that 70% of the public is unwilling to pay
more tax than the current 6.2% rate. Another proposed solution to Social
Security's problems is a to decrease the amount of benefits received by
retirees. The first way to reduce the amount of benefits that are being paid out
is to adjust the CPI. Sen. Daniel Monynihan of New York (Dem.) has proposed that
a 1.1% cut in annual cost-of-living adjustments for pensioners would be a
reasonable solution to Social Securities problems. The adjustment of the CPI
would reflect the belief by many economists that the CPI overstates current
inflation. He claims that this would almost completely solve the problems in the
Social Security program by insuring that the expected inflow ... more

aggressive action

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Freud

In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels present their
view of human nature and the effect that the economic system and economic
factors have on it.  Marx and Engels discuss human nature in the context of
the economic factors which they see as driving history.  Freud, in
Civilization and Its Discontents, explores human nature through his
psychological view of the human mind.
Marx states that history "...is the history of class struggles" (9).  
Marx views history as being determined by economics, which for him is the
source of class differences.  History is described in The Communist Manifesto  
as a series of conflicts between oppressing classes and oppressed classes.  
According to this view of history, massive changes occur in a society when new
technological capabilities allow a portion of the oppressed class to destroy
the power of the oppressing class.  Marx briefly traces the development of
this through different periods, mentioning some of the various oppressed and
oppressing classes, but points out that in earlier societies there were many
gradations of social classes.  He also states that this class conflict
sometimes leads to "...the common ruin of the contending classes" (Marx 9).
Marx sees the modern age as being distinguished from earlier periods by
the simplification and intensification of the class conflict.  He states that
"Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile
camps... bourgeoisie and proletariat" (Marx 9).  The bourgeoisie, as the
dominant class of capitalists, subjugates the proletariat by using it as an
object for the expansion of capital.  As capitalism progresses, this
subjugation reduces a larger portion of the population to the proletariat and
society becomes more polarized.
According to Marx, the polarization of society and the intense
oppression of the proletariat will eventually lead to a revolution by the
proletariat, in which the control of the bourgeoisie will be destroyed.  The
proletariat will then gain control of the means of production.  This
revolution will result in the creation of a socialist state, which the
proletariat will use to institute socialist reforms and eventually communism.
The reforms which Marx outlines as occurring in the socialist state have
the common goal of disimpowering the bourgeoisie and increasing economic
equality.  He sees this socialist stage as necessary for but inevitably
leading to the establishment of communism.  Human beings, which are
competitive under capitalism and other prior economic systems, will become
cooperative under socialism and communism.  Marx, in his view of human nature,
sees economic factors as being the primary motivator for human thought and
action.  He asks the rhetorical question, "What else does the history of ideas
prove, than that intellectual production changes its character in proportion
as material production is changed?" (Marx 29).  For Marx, the economic status
of human beings determines their consciousness.  Philosophy, religion and
other cultural aspects are a reflection of economics and the dominant class
which controls the economic system.
This view of human nature as being primarily determined by economics may
seem to be a base view of humanity.  However, from Marx's point of view, the
human condition reaches its full potential under communism.  Under communism,
the cycle of class conflict and oppression will end, because all members of
society will have their basic material needs met, rather than most being
exploited for their labor by a dominant class.  In this sense the Marxian view
of human nature can be seen as hopeful.  Although human beings are motivated
by economics, they will ultimately be able to establish a society which is not
based on economic oppression.
Freud, in Civilization and Its Discontents, presents a conception of
human nature that differs greatly from that of Marx.  His view of human nature
is more complex than Marx's.  Freud is critical of the Marxist view of human
nature, stating that "...I am able to recognize that the psychological
premises on which the [communist] system is based are an untenable illusion.  
In abolishing private property we deprive the human love of aggression of one
of its instruments...but we have in no way altered the differences in power
and influence which are misused by aggressiveness, nor have we altered
anything in its nature" (Freud 71).  Freud does not believe that removal of
economic differences will remove the human ... more

aggressive action

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  • G: Social Security G: Social Security Social Security Social Security is a hot topic of debate today, since most American's believe that the system is near collapse. The trust fund that Americans have been paying into for Social Security is likely to dry up in 2029 due to the large number of baby boomers heading into retirement. Franklin Roosevelt set up Social security to help the people that had worked and Struggled all their lives in honest toil. Social security was set up to accomplish two main goals. The first goal of Social Se...
  • G: Freud G: Freud Freud In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels present their view of human nature and the effect that the economic system and economic factors have on it. Marx and Engels discuss human nature in the context of the economic factors which they see as driving history. Freud, in Civilization and Its Discontents, explores human nature through his psychological view of the human mind. Marx states that history \...is the history of class struggles\ (9). Marx views history as being d...
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