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addiction and dependence Lao-Tzu: The Moderation of Rul

Ruling a country effectively is executed through a variety of methods. Lao-Tzu, a follower of Taoism, expresses his belief on the most efficient way to govern. "The more prohibitions you have, the less virtuous people will be. The more weapons you have, the less secure people will be. The more subsidies you have, the less self-reliant people will be" (25). This quote from Lao-Tzu can be interpreted many different ways. The author discusses what he feels the role of a leader should be, the restrictions and the privileges that should be given to the people. There are various views on this particular passage even among Americans. Lao-Tzu feels that taking action in order to make people feel safer and ensure their well being will actually be detrimental; although I agree with Lao-Tzu's tactics, most Americans hold differentiating views.

The more restrictions you place on a people, the less moral the people will be. Americans encounter this on a daily basis. American society was founded upon and is enraptured by rebellion. The early American colonists revolted against the English government. The more laws and restrictions the King would place on them the more they would rebel and fight. When the American people feel oppressed by any law or prohibition set forth by the government the people will challenge it in an effort to change it. America is one of the only countries where its people actually believe they can make a difference and change what they feel is not right. Other countries around the world have been too oppressed to have enough hope for the future. Protests and demonstrations occur daily in the United States. The majority of crime committed against the government or any official organization by the people is out of spite or revolt for the prohibitions that are placed upon them. Therefore, Lao-Tzu's ideal is illustrated through the actions of the early American colonists.

Having a greater amount of weapons will cause the people to feel less safe. If you live in a neighborhood where you do not have to lock your doors at night you will feel safer than if you lived in a neighborhood where every night you have to set the alarm on your house. On an international level, the more weapons a country has the more people will live in fear. They will feel that they are in a great amount of danger if the need to be protected with weapons is so significant. This will also cause other countries to believe they are in danger, as if they were about to be attacked. This year the storing of biological weapons by Iraqi officials alerted America and the United Nations. The Iraqi people then felt unsafe as well as the rest of the world, especially the American people as the world was questioning Iraq's motives. Why would Iraq store such significant amounts of detrimental biological weapons if they did not have any intent to use them? Lao-Tzu's theory is found to be factual through the movements of Iraq to protect its people.

The more you give to people, the less independent they will become. When people are regularly provided with any service the less they will have to do for themselves. They will rely upon others to supply them with a good or service instead of working as hard to earn their own living. The American system of welfare and Social Security testify to Lao-Tzu's remark. These systems have inspired individuals not to seek the earning of their personal income. In fact, some purposely meet the requirements of poverty just to receive their monthly check; and for some this money is not spent on the essentials required for living but to feed their addiction to drugs or alcohol. Providing people with subsidies leads to less self-reliance, which for many leads to a cycle of immorality. This circle of dependence testifies to Lao-Tzu's remark, "the more subsidies you have, the less self-reliant people will be" (25).

My belief that Americans could not adopt Lao-Tzu's tactics may be my own misconception. America is portrayed through the media with a message of dependence, violence and moral decline. Whether or not this is an accurate conception of American society, ... more

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Alcoholism

Bridget Kelly
November 19, 2000
Research Paper
Elizabeth Antalek



One out of thirteen adults are considered to be an alcoholic or suffer from a drinking problem.  Today, fourteen million Americans suffer from a disease that is caused by a combination of physiological, psychological, social, and genetic factors.  Alcoholism is a developmental disease that progresses slowly over a number of years and is based on both the physical and emotional dependency on alcohol.  In many cases it leads to brain damage and/or early death.  
Early symptoms include putting excessive importance on the availability of alcohol, which influences a persons choice pastimes and friends.  Alcoholics use alcohol more as a personality changing drug rather than a beverage served with food or as a social custom.  An alcoholic usually has a high tolerance to alcohol, which means being able to drink more and show fewer side effects than others. The person begins to drink even though it may not be in her/his best interest.  Alcohol comes to be more important than personal relationships, family, work, or even health.  People are unable to predict how much an alcoholic will drink at a certain occasion or if the alcoholic is practicing abstaining from alcohol, when the drinking will resume again.  Physical addiction will lead to drinking around the clock to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
Ethyl alcohol, the alcohol used in alcoholic beverages, consists of C2H5OH.  It is  a clear liquid with a burning taste and a pleasant smell.  It has toxic and sedative effects on the body.  Alcohol can have major effects on major organ systems.  For example, it can cause ulcers, inflammation or the pancreas, and cirrohosis of the liver.  It can permanently damage the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.  Withdrawal from alcohol, in severe cases, can cause shaking limbs, hallucinations, and blackouts: which can be fatal if not properly treated.  Even withdrawal from hard drugs such as heroin rarely results in death.
The liver is the largest internal organ in the body.  In a healthy adult, it weighs about 3 pounds and holds about thirteen percent of the bodys blood supply.  Blood flowing from the stomach and intestines goes into the liver where it extracts nutrients and toxins.  The blood is then pumped back to the heart.  The liver performs over 500 vital functions. It processes all of the nutrients that the body requires, including proteins, glucose, vitamins, cholesterol, and fats. It also makes potentially toxic substances, including alcohol, ammonia, nicotine, drugs, and harmful by-products of digestion non-toxic.
The liver is particularly harmed by alcohol. In the body, alcohol breaks down into various chemicals which are very toxic in the liver. Alcoholic cirrhosis is the most common cause of cirrhosis in the U.S. and is estimated to be responsible for 44% of deaths from cirrhosis in North America. However, one Canadian study found alcohol to be the major contributor to 80% of all cirrhosis deaths.  About 10% to 35% of heavy drinkers develop alcoholic hepatitis. After years of drinking, liver damage can be very severe, leading to cirrhosis in about 10% to 20% of cases. Not eating when drinking and consuming a variety of alcoholic beverages are also factors that increase the risk for liver damage. People with alcoholism are also at higher risk for hepatitis B and C. People with alcoholism should be immunized against hepatitis Band they may need a larger dose of the vaccine for it to be effective.
Recent evidence shows that even moderate drinking in women during pregnancy can result in serious damage to the child.  For example, it may cause physical or mental retardation, and in some cases, fetal alcohol syndrome.  
Fetal alcohol syndrome is caused by alcohol consumption of pregnant women.  The consumption of alcohol greatly increases the risk of abnormalities for the unborn child.  Some of these abnormalities include: growth deficiencies (head, weight, length etc.), facial abnormalities (small head, small jaw, small, narrow unusual-looking eyes), heart disease, and limb abnormalities.
Recognizing that one has a problem is the first step in treatment.  For most alcoholics, the next step is detoxification, which is the medical management of severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms.  Patients undergoing detox (detoxification), which usually requires less than a week, usually stay in a specialized residential treatment facility or ... more

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