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absurdist fiction Cinematography Everything You Need To Know

Cinematography: Everything You Need To Know


(sin-uh-muh-tahg'-ruh-fee)
Cinematography is the technique and art of making motion pictures, which
are a sequence of photographs of a single subject that are taken over time
and then projected in the same sequence to create an illusion of motion.
Each image of a moving object is slightly different from the preceding one.

Projector

A motion-picture projector projects the sequence of picture frames,
contained on a ribbon of film, in their proper order.  A claw engages
perforations in the film and pulls the film down into the film gate,
placing each new frame in exactly the same position as the preceding one.
When the frame is in position, it is projected onto the screen by
illuminating it with a beam of light.  The period of time between the
projection of each still image when no image is projected is normally not
noticed by the viewer.

Two perceptual phenomena--persistence of vision and the critical flicker
frequency--cause a continuous image.  Persistence of a vision is the
ability of the viewer to retain or in some way remember the impression of
an image after it has been withdrawn from view.  The critical flicker
frequency is the minimum rate of interruption of the projected light beam
that will not cause the motion picture to appear to flicker.  A frequency
above about 48 interruptions a second will eliminate flicker.

Camera

Like a still camera (see CAMERA), a movie camera shoots each picture
individually.  The movie camera, however, must also move the film precisely
and control the shutter, keeping the amount of light reaching the film
nearly constant from frame to frame.  The shutter of a movie camera is
essentially a circular plate rotated by an electric motor.  An opening in
the plate exposes the film frame only after the film has been positioned
and has come to rest. The plate itself continues to rotate smoothly.

Photographic materials must be manufactured with great precision.  The
perforations, or holes in the film, must be precisely positioned.  The
pitch--the distance from one hole to another--must be maintained by correct
film storage.  By the late 1920s, a sound-on-film system of synchronous
SOUND RECORDING was developed and gained widespread popularity.  In this
process, the sound is recorded separately on a machine synchronized with
the picture camera. Unlike the picture portion of the film, the sound
portion is recorded and played back continuously rather than in
intermittent motion.  Although editing still makes use of perforated film
for flexibility, a more modern technique uses conventional magnetic tape
for original recording and synchronizes the recording to the picture
electronically (see TAPE RECORDER).

If the number of photographs projected per unit time (frame rate) differs
from the number produced per unit time by the camera, an apparent speeding
up or slowing down of the normal rate is created.  Changes in the frame
rates are used occasionally for comic effect or motion analysis.

Cinematography becomes an art when the filmmaker attempts to make moving
images that relate directly to human perception, provide visual
significance and information, and provoke emotional response.

History of Film Technology

Several parlor toys of the early 1800s used visual illusions similar to
those of the motion picture.  These include the thaumatrope (1825); the
phenakistiscope (1832); the stroboscope (1832); and the zoetrope (1834).

The photographic movie, however, was first used as a means of investigation
rather than of theatrical illusion.  Leland Stanford, then governor of
California, hired photographer Eadweard MUYBRIDGE to prove that at some
time in a horse's gallop all four legs are simultaneously off the ground.
Muybridge did so by using several cameras to produce a series of
photographs with very short time intervals between them.  Such a multiple
photographic record was used in the kinetoscope, which displayed a
photographic moving image and was commercially successful for a time.

The kinetoscope was invented either by Thomas Alva EDISON or by his
assistant William K.  L.  Dickson, both of whom had experimented originally
with moving pictures as a supplement to the phonograph record.  They later
turned to George EASTMAN, who provided a flexible celluloid film base to
store the large number of images necessary to create motion pictures.

The mechanical means of ... more

absurdist fiction

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Cinematography Everything You Need To Know

Cinematography: Everything You Need To Know


(sin-uh-muh-tahg'-ruh-fee)
Cinematography is the technique and art of making motion pictures, which
are a sequence of photographs of a single subject that are taken over time
and then projected in the same sequence to create an illusion of motion.
Each image of a moving object is slightly different from the preceding one.

Projector

A motion-picture projector projects the sequence of picture frames,
contained on a ribbon of film, in their proper order.  A claw engages
perforations in the film and pulls the film down into the film gate,
placing each new frame in exactly the same position as the preceding one.
When the frame is in position, it is projected onto the screen by
illuminating it with a beam of light.  The period of time between the
projection of each still image when no image is projected is normally not
noticed by the viewer.

Two perceptual phenomena--persistence of vision and the critical flicker
frequency--cause a continuous image.  Persistence of a vision is the
ability of the viewer to retain or in some way remember the impression of
an image after it has been withdrawn from view.  The critical flicker
frequency is the minimum rate of interruption of the projected light beam
that will not cause the motion picture to appear to flicker.  A frequency
above about 48 interruptions a second will eliminate flicker.

Camera

Like a still camera (see CAMERA), a movie camera shoots each picture
individually.  The movie camera, however, must also move the film precisely
and control the shutter, keeping the amount of light reaching the film
nearly constant from frame to frame.  The shutter of a movie camera is
essentially a circular plate rotated by an electric motor.  An opening in
the plate exposes the film frame only after the film has been positioned
and has come to rest. The plate itself continues to rotate smoothly.

Photographic materials must be manufactured with great precision.  The
perforations, or holes in the film, must be precisely positioned.  The
pitch--the distance from one hole to another--must be maintained by correct
film storage.  By the late 1920s, a sound-on-film system of synchronous
SOUND RECORDING was developed and gained widespread popularity.  In this
process, the sound is recorded separately on a machine synchronized with
the picture camera. Unlike the picture portion of the film, the sound
portion is recorded and played back continuously rather than in
intermittent motion.  Although editing still makes use of perforated film
for flexibility, a more modern technique uses conventional magnetic tape
for original recording and synchronizes the recording to the picture
electronically (see TAPE RECORDER).

If the number of photographs projected per unit time (frame rate) differs
from the number produced per unit time by the camera, an apparent speeding
up or slowing down of the normal rate is created.  Changes in the frame
rates are used occasionally for comic effect or motion analysis.

Cinematography becomes an art when the filmmaker attempts to make moving
images that relate directly to human perception, provide visual
significance and information, and provoke emotional response.

History of Film Technology

Several parlor toys of the early 1800s used visual illusions similar to
those of the motion picture.  These include the thaumatrope (1825); the
phenakistiscope (1832); the stroboscope (1832); and the zoetrope (1834).

The photographic movie, however, was first used as a means of investigation
rather than of theatrical illusion.  Leland Stanford, then governor of
California, hired photographer Eadweard MUYBRIDGE to prove that at some
time in a horse's gallop all four legs are simultaneously off the ground.
Muybridge did so by using several cameras to produce a series of
photographs with very short time intervals between them.  Such a multiple
photographic record was used in the kinetoscope, which displayed a
photographic moving image and was commercially successful for a time.

The kinetoscope was invented either by Thomas Alva EDISON or by his
assistant William K.  L.  Dickson, both of whom had experimented originally
with moving pictures as a supplement to the phonograph record.  They later
turned to George EASTMAN, who provided a flexible celluloid film base to
store the large number of images necessary to create motion pictures.

The mechanical means of ... more

absurdist fiction

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