A Selective Advantage


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a selective advantage
Crab Study

Since its itroduction to the New Jersey shore in 1988, the western Pacific shore
crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus has spread to inhabit rocky intertidal locations
along the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to North Carolina (McDermott 1998).

Many reasons have been proposed to explain the rapid spread of this non-indiginous
species. For example, it has been shown that H. sanguineus has longer spawning
periods along the mid-Atlantic coast than it does in its natural habitat in the
western Pacific Ocean, due to a more favorable climate (Epifanio et al 1998).

For this reason, these crabs are able to spawn more times per season than
indigenous crabs, providing one possible hypothesis for their population
explotion. For this species to expand its range along the Atlantic coast, it
will need to have wide tolerances to temperature and salinity. In 1998 Epifanio
found that The purpose of this study is to show the tolerance and behavioral
responses of H. sanguineus to varying water and air temperatures, and water
salinity concentrations. It is believed that these crabs will be very tolerant
to the various extreme conditions that they will be put through. It is the
ability of these crabs to survive in these unfavorable situations that is key to
their success. This experiment was also designed to prove the hypothesis that
the tolerance of H. sanguineus to various environmental factors increases with
size. METHODS AND MATERIALS- In February 2000, a field trip was taken to Crane

Neck Point to collect live specimens for the experiment. The field trip was
conducted at low tide. The water temperature was approximately 3 degrees Celcius,
with the air temperature slightly above freezing (0-1 degree Celcius). Live
crabs were obtained by overturning rocks in the intertidal zone. Hemigrapsus
sanguineus was found at all levels of the intertidal zone, although their
numbers increased as one moved toward the waterline. The crabs were collected
with no distinction toward size. The sizes of the specimens collected were found
to range from 0.5 to 4.2 cm. The crabs were collected in a plastic five gallon
bucket. Water was added to the bucket to keep the crabs from dehydrating. The
crabs were taken back to the lab, where they were kept in the plastic five
gallon buckets for a few weeks until the experiment began. Air hoses were added
to the buckets in order to oxygenate the water. The water was changed, as
necessary. The first experiment conducted was the experiment regarding water
temperature and salinity tolerances. The objective was to conduct an experiment
that would provide measurable data on the tolerance of H. sanguineus in various
water salinities, over a range of temperatures. To conduct this experiment, 8
one gallon acrylic tanks were obtained. Four were used for the cold temperature
experiment, and four were used for the room temperature experiment. Next, water
of varying salinities were produced. We started with seawater that had a
salinity of 30 parts per thousand. To obtain water with a salinity of 15 parts
per thousand, the sea water was slowly diluted by adding tap water. The water
was added slowly, and frequently checked with a salinity refractometer until the
desired salinity of 15 parts per thousand was obtained. The water was further
diluted, using the method above, to obtain the 5 parts per thousand water. To
obtain the water with a salinity of 40 parts per thousand, the 30 parts per
thousand sea water was again used, but this time was left uncovered as to allow
for water evaporation. After several days, and frequent testing with the
salinity refractometer, the water had a salinity of 40 parts per thousand. The
containers of water were covered with plastic wrap, as to prevent evaporation,
and keep the salinities constant. In additional a layer of mesh was used to
cover the top of each container, to prevent the crabs from escaping (Figure 1).

Four of the containers were left to stand at 25 degrees Celcius, while the
remaining four were placed in the deli case at a temperature of 5 degrees

Celcius. An air hose was added to each of the containers, in order to oxygenate
the water. Ten crabs, of a varying range of sizes, were added to each container.

The crabs, once again, ranged in size from 0.5 - 4.2 cm. In the first trial 15
fish food pellets were added to each container in order to provide the crabs
with food, and hopefully reduce cannibalism. This was repeated a second an third
time for both the 25 degree Celcius and 5 degree Celcius experiments, with ... more

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Colgate In Argentina


Introduction
Colgate was founded in the United States in 1806 and for the first 100 years, its business focus was only there. However, in the very early 1900's, the Company began a very aggressive expansion program that led to the establishment of Colgate operations throughout the world. Today, Colgate-Palmolive is a $9 billion company, marketing its products in over 200 countries and territories under such internationally recognized brand names as Colgate, Palmolive, Ajax, Fab, and Mennen as well as Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet.
Colgate Total is considered the greatest evolution in toothpaste since the introduction of fluoride. This highly effective formula, containing fluoride and the antimicrobial ingredient, Triclosan, has been demonstrated clinically to help prevent gingivitis, plaque, cavities and tartar. And, its unique patented formula, containing the co-polymer, Gantrez, continues to be active between brushings. It continues to work fighting plaque, gingivitis, tartar and cavities after you stop brushing, even if you eat or drink. No other toothpaste manufactured in the US contains Triclosan or has been cleared to make claims for gingivitis and plaque reduction. Since the announcement of the FDA clearance of Colgate Total on July 14, 1997, retailers have expressed unprecedented enthusiasm and interest.
Dr. Sigmund S. Socransky, Associate Professor of Oral Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and Senior Member of the Staff and Head, Departments of Microbiology and Periodontology, Forsyth Dental Center, said, Colgate Total represents one of the most remarkable oral therapeutic achievements in the last 20 years.
Colgate Total will benefit the oral health of all users. The most common non-contagious diseases are periodontal diseases such as gingivitis. In fact, 63% of Americans suffer from gingivitis. As the only toothpaste with this formula, Colgate Total will help Americans take greater care of their teeth and gums than ever before and will help younger people prevent these dental problems.
Since Colgate Total was introduced internationally in 1992, over half a billion tubes have been purchased by millions of consumers in 103 countries. However, before permitting it to be marketed in the US, the FDA conducted an extensive review of data in Colgates clinical tests. These included five major studies that supported the safety and efficacy of the toothpaste.
Independent dental associations in 30 countries, including the American, Canadian and British Dental Associations, have awarded seals of acceptance to Colgate Total. Colgate Total will begin shipping to food, drug and mass merchandisers nationwide on December 15, 1997, and will have a suggested retail price of $2.49, $2.99 and $3.49 for 4.2, 6.0 and 7.8 ounce tubes, respectively.
Colgate-Palmolive is a leading global consumer products company tightly focused on Oral Care, Personal Care, Household Care, Fabric Care and Pet Nutrition. In the U.S., Colgate sells its quality products under such nationally recognized brand names as Colgate, Palmolive, Mennen, Ajax, Irish Spring, Softsoap, Murphy Oil Soap, Ultra Brite, Baby Magic and Fab, as well as Hill's Science Diet and Hill's Prescription Diet pet foods.
Executive summary
Successful international marketers possess the ability to identify with and adapt to different cultural environments. International marketing requires that one actively anticipate the effects both foreign and domestic uncontrollable environments exert over the marketing mix, and then adequately adjust the marketing mix to minimize potential negative effects. Often times an international marketers self-reference criterion impede his or her ability to accurately assess and properly respond to foreign operating environments. Rather than rely on their own self reliance criteria, international marketers must conduct far-reaching, comprehensive cultural and economic analyses of potential foreign markets in order to develop more effective and responsive marketing mixes that improve the success potential of their market-development strategies.
Argentina certainly represents a viable market-development opportunity for Colgate Total toothpaste. U.S. companies intending to export to Argentina should consider economic, demographic, as well as cultural characteristics that differentiate it from other Latin American countries.
Having the highest per capita gross domestic product and the second highest total gross domestic product and life expectancy in Latin America, as well as low rates of population increase and illiteracy rates, Argentina attracts many business opportunities.
The population and economic activity are highly concentrated in the Greater Buenos Aires area. The population is largely of European descent and continues to have strong ... more

a selective advantage

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