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a christmas carol Charlemagne

Charlemagne


       History 101 - Fast Forward
       Fall 1996
       PREPARED BY:
       SUBMITTED:  September 30, 1996

Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, King of the Franks (742-814), was a strong
leader who unified Western Europe through military power and the blessing of the
Church.  His belief in the need for education among the Frankish people was to
bring about religious, political, and educational reforms that would change the
history of Europe.

Charlemagne was born in 742 at Aachen, the son of Pepin(or Pippin) the Short and
grandson of Charles Martel.  His grandfather, Charles, had begun the process of
unifying western Europe, in the belief that all people should be Christian.
Charlemagne's father, Pepin, continued this process throughout his rule and
passed his beliefs on to Charlemagne.  All three, in addition to the political
unification, believed that the church should be reformed and reorganized under
the Pope, which helped their rise to power as the Carolingian Dynasty. (Holmes
74)

Upon Pepin's death in 768, Charlemagne and his brother, Carloman, each inherited
half of the Frankish kingdom.  Pepin, in the Merovingian tradition of the time,
split his kingdom between his two sons.   Three years later Carloman died and
Charlemagne took control of the entire kingdom.  He inherited great wealth and a
powerful army, built by his father and grandfather.  Charlemagne used the army
and his own skillful planning to more than double the size of the Frankish
Kingdom. (Halsall 15)

The world of Charlemagne was a heathen one, with many warring tribes or kingdoms.
Many of these tribes were conquered by Charlemagne, among them the Aquitanians,
the Lombards, the Saxons, the Bretons, the Bavarians, the Huns, and the Danes.
The longest of these battles was against the Saxons, lasting thirty-three years.
Charlemagne actually defeated them many times, but due to their faithlessness
and their propensity to return to their pagan lifestyle, the Saxons lost many
lives in the prolonged battles with the Franks.  With each conquest the Frankish
kingdom grew, and with growth came additional power and responsibility for
Charlemagne.  In each area of Europe that was taken over by Charlemagne, he
removed the leaders if they would not convert to Christianity and appointed new
ones, usually someone with high position in the Church.  Those people who
refused to convert or be baptized in the church were put to death. (Holmes 75)

The Church played a vital role in the kingdom of Charlemagne.  It gave a sense
of stability to Charlemagne's rule, and he in turn provided stability in the
Church.  The people conquered by Charlemagne, after being converted to
Christianity, were taught through the Bible a unified code of right and wrong.
It was necessary for the Church to play a role in this education of the people,
because only the clergy were educated. (Boussard 92)  The Church also guided
Charlemagne's hand as a ruler, for he took on many conquests as a necessity to
spread the Christian religion throughout Europe. (Ganshoff 19)  Indeed, it
appears that Charlemagne's desire to spread his kingdom and government was
intertwined with his desire to spread the Christian religion and have the people
live according to the Word of God. (Ganshoff 25)

At the beginning of the Carolingian dynasty the Church was suffering from many
problems.  Paganistic peoples, a degradation of the Latin language, and the
decline of power of the Pope or Papacy all contributed to the need for a leader
to bring about reformation.  Charles Martel, Pepin, and ultimately Charlemagne
all took as their personal responsibility the reorganization of the Church.
Each one, as king of the Franks, saw it  his duty to better the state of his
churches. (Ganshoff 205)  Charlemagne, through the monasteries and ultimately
the "Palace School", required all priests to learn classic Latin.  His purpose
was to insure that church services were always conducted in the proper form,
with correct pronunciation and grammar.  The education of the priests also
served to provide Charlemagne with a growing number of educated people for his
administration, and gave his kingdom a unified written language that could be
passed on throughout all of Western Europe. (Holmes 97)

The Papacy had been reduced to controlling only a small portion of land around
Rome, and was under constant aggression from the Lombards.  Pope Hadrian I in
773 appealed to Charlemagne to help rebuff the Lombards, and in the winter of
that year in a short and decisive campaign, the Lombards were defeated.
Charlemagne then added "King of the Lombards" to his title, and gave control of
the northern part of Italy to the Pope.  The creation of the "Papal States"
indebted the ... more

a christmas carol

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Kennedy

His Life and Legacy On November 22, 1963, while being driven through the
streets of Dallas, Texas, in his open car, President John F. Kennedy was shot
dead, allegedly by the lone gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald. John Fitzgerald Kennedy
was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest person ever to be
elected President, the first Roman Catholic and the first to be born in the 20th
century. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as

President therefore his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence
was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented
the United States from entering into another world war. The world had not only
lost a common man, but a great leader of men. From his heroic actions in World

War II to his presidency, making the decisions to avert possible nuclear
conflict with world superpowers, greatness can be seen. Kennedy also found the
time to author several best-selling novels from his experiences. His symbolic
figure represented all the charm, vigor and optimism of youth as he led a nation
into a new era of prosperity. From his birth into the powerful and influential

Kennedy clan, much was to be expected of him. Kennedy was born on May 29,1917 in

Brookline, Massachusetts. His father, Joe, Sr., was a successful businessman
with many political connections. Appointed by President Roosevelt, Joe, Sr., was
given the chair of the Securities and Exchange Commission and later the
prestigious position of United States ambassador to Great Britain (Anderson 98).

His mother, Rose, was a loving housewife and took young John on frequent trips
around historic Boston learning about American Revolutionary history. Both
parents impressed on their children that their country had been good to the

Kennedys. Performing some service for the country must return whatever benefits
the family received from the country they were told. (Anderson 12). The Kennedy
clan included Joe, Jr., Bobby, Ted and their sisters, Eunice, Jean, Patricia,

Rosemary, and Kathleen. Joe, Jr., was a significant figure in young John's life
as he was the figure for most of John's admiration. His older brother was much
bigger and stronger than John and took it upon himself to be John's coach and
protector. John's childhood was full of sports, fun and activity. This all ended
when John grew old enough to leave for school. At the age of thirteen, John left
home to attend an away school for the first time. Canterbury School, a boarding
school in New Milford, Connecticut and Choate Preparatory in Wallingford,

Connecticut completed his elementary education ("JFK" 98). John
graduated in 1934 and was promised a trip to London as a graduation gift. Soon
after, John became ill with jaundice and would have to go to the hospital. He
spent the rest of the summer trying to recover. He was not entirely well when he
started Princeton, several weeks later in the fall of 1935. Around Christmas the
jaundice returned and John had to drop out of school. Before the next school
year began, he told his father he wanted to go to Harvard ("JFK" 98).

On campus, young people took interest in politics, social changes, and events in

Europe. The United States was pulling out of the Great Depression. Hitler's Nazi

Germany followed aggressive territorial expansion in Europe. It was at this time
that John first became aware of the vast social and economic differences in the

United States. In June 1940, John graduated cum laude (with praise or
distinction) from Harvard. His thesis earned a magna cum laude (great praise) (
"JFK" 98). After graduation, John began to send his paper to
publishers, and it was accepted on his second try. Wilfrid Funk published it
under the title Why England Slept. It became a bestseller. John, at twenty-five,
became a literary sensation. In the spring of 1941, both John and Joe, Jr.,
decided to enroll in the armed services. Joe was accepted as a naval air cadet
but John was turned down by both the army and navy because of his back trouble
and history of illness ("JFK" 98). After months of training and
conditioning, John reapplied and on September 19, John was accepted into the
navy as a desk clerk in Washington. He was disgusted and applied for a transfer.

In June 1941, Kennedy was sent to Naval Officers Training School at Northwestern

University in Evanston, Illinois and then for additional training at the Motor

Torpedo Boat Center at Melville, Rhode Island. In late April 1943, Lieutenant

John F. Kennedy was put in command ... more

a christmas carol

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