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1993 1997 microsoft corporation The Death of Communism  Exploratory Essays Research Papers
The Death of Communism


The United States longest and bloodiest war was the Vietnam War, which was fought from 1959 until 1975.(Communist Manifesto 1) In this war 57,685 Americans were killed, and their were over 2 million Vietnamese deaths.(Communist Manifesto 3) One of the main causes of the war was a commonly held American belief called the Domino Theory. This theory stated that if the U.S. allowed one country to fall to communism, those around it would fall, and then those around it, eventually taking over the whole world. However, the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 allows to approach communism in a new light.  

The Communist Manifesto has three sections. The first is an outline of the history of the bourgeois and the proletariat, and a explanation on how the bourgeois will bring about their defeat. The second section shows the framework of the communist goals, and their long range plan to abolish private property. The last section criticizes other socialist attempts at the time, calling all workers to unite under communism.  

The bourgeois Marx speaks of in the manifesto is simply the capitalist of the time. The proletariat are the workers of the world, people who, according to Marx, have "[become] an appendage of the machine."(Marx 3) Marx speaks of their horrible fate saying "they are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the overlooker, and, above all, by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself."(Marx 3) Marx documents the stages of the proletariats struggle with the bourgeois: "at first the contest is carried on by individual laborers, then by the workpeople of a factory, then the operatives of one trade, in one locality, against the bourgeois that directly exploits them."(Marx 4) Marx tells how this indignation and desire for better working conditions brings about the formation of labor unions. These unions then increase in political power, until a movement is started. Thus the bourgeois are heightening the antagonism that will bring their defeat.  



The second section of the Communist Manifesto clarifies the aims of communist. It states that communist do not form a separate working class party, that they do not have interest separate from the working class as a whole, and they do not seek to mold the proletarian movement. Marx states that "the distinguishing feature of Communism is not the abolishment of property generally, but the abolishment of bourgeois property."(Marx 7) Marx is arguing that the capitalist societies of the time have done away with property for nine-tenths of the population already, and the only way to remove class distinctions is to abolish private property.  



The final section of the Communist Manifesto, Marx attacks various countries attempts at socialism and proclaims that communist "disdain to conceal their aims."(Marx 8) He finishes with a call to arms: "Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!"(Marx 9)  



The Communist Manifesto was written in a time when people were starting to realize all the injustices the industrial revolution and modern industry had created. However, this situation no longer exists. Gone, are the bourgeois and proletarians; a middle class has risen up; communism has begun to fall.  



Marx describes the rise of the bourgeois by saying "the place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry, the place of the industrial middle class, by the industrial millionaire, the leaders of whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois."(Marx 2) But this leader has disappeared in our world today. One no longer hears of a Henry Ford or a John Rockefeller. These industrial giants have been replaced by corporations. CEOs now head these corporation, that are owned publicly through stock. Proletarians have disappeared as well. There are no longer thousands upon thousands of people who work in "the great factory of the industrial capitalist."(Marx 2) These people have risen into the middle class, a class that did not exist when the manifesto was written. The manifesto no longer addresses the needs of the people, because the people it addressed, the proletariat, no longer exist.  

Therefore communism no longer can ... more

1993 1997 microsoft corporation

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Classical COnditioning

Ivan Pavlov
Classical Conditioning
PY-100
April 2002
Jason Forsythe










#ABSTRACT
1904 Nobel Prize Winner, Ivan Pavlov was born in Ryazan, Russia on September 14, 1849. Pavlov is best known for his intricate workings with the drooling dog experiment that lead to his further research in conditioning. This experiment, which began in 1889, had an influence on the development of physiologically oriented behaviorist theories of psychology in the early years of the nineteenth century. His work on the physiology of the digestive glands won him the 1904 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.
CONTRIBUTIONS
Pavlov's first independent work focused on the physiology of the circulation of the blood (Girogian, 1974). He studied the influence of variations in blood volume on blood pressure. He also investigated the nervous control of the heart, and argued that four types of nerves control rhythm and strength of cardiac contractions. It was during this first independent study that Pavlov used unanesthetized, neurologically intact dogs (Girogian, 1974). This method became the mainstay of Pavlovs methodology.
Pavlovs second independent work centered primarily around digestion. He started studying digestion as early as 1879, and it was his major focus from 1890 to 1897 (Girogian, 1974). His work was an accumulation of observations on the nervous control of one organ system through the method of chronic experiment (Girogian, 1974). The study of digestion involved developing "fistulas" through which secretions from salivary glands, stomach, the pancreas, and small intestine could be collected (Girogian, 1974). His technique was truly unique in that he did not cut the nerve supply nor contaminate the secretions with food.
The most famous and well-known experiment of Pavlov is that he 'conditioned' dogs to start a salivary response to the sound of a bell. He began by measuring the amount of salivation in response to only food. As the experiments continued, he rang a bell as he presented the food (Girogian, 1974). Again, he noted a salivary response. Finally, by only ringing the bell, Pavlov observed the same response as having presented food to the dogs . . . salivation (Girogian, 1974). These experiments defined what has been a "conditioned response".
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlov's experiments with dogs. In an article titled, An Animal Owners Guide to Operant and Classical Conditioning, by Stacy Braslau explained the process of the experiment. Pavlov presented dogs with food, and measured their salivary response (how much they drooled). Then he began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. At first, the dogs did not begin salivating until the food was presented. After a while, however, the dogs began to salivate when the sound of the bell was presented. They learned to associate the sound of the bell with the presentation of the food. As far as their immediate physiological responses were concerned, the sound of the bell became equivalent to the presentation of the food.
Through Ivan Pavlov's experiment with dogs and their reaction to stimulus, he set the basis for Classical conditioning. The methods of how classical conditioning works can be described in the following sequence (Mischel, 1993, p. 296):
1. There exists an unconditioned, natural response, like a reflex (called a UCR)
2. There exists a stimulus that triggers this response (called the UCS)
3.Eventually, the organism (man, dog, ect.) will begin to associate the UCR with the UCS
4.Once the behavior is learned, the UCR may take place even when the UCS is simulated
5. At that point, the response it referred to as conditioned (or a CR)
6.The stimulus is then referred to as a conditioned, or learned as well (or CS)
7.Stimuli unrelated to the UCR may be imposed simultaneously to the UCS
8.Though unrelated, like the UCS, these stimuli will be associated to the UCR
9.Eventually, once learned, even these unrelated stimuli can trigger the CR
The theory of Classical conditioning can be used to describe many events in peoples lives.  For example, the amount a person likes another person may be associated with how much the other person has come to represent positive stimuli or gratification (Mischel, 1993, p. 297).  People may develop certain fears due to negative stimuli that occurred at the same time as another event (Mischel, 1993, p. 297). Freud's interpretation ... more

1993 1997 microsoft corporation

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