This essay CHAPTER NINE has a total of 6814 words and 61 pages.


Middle Childhood (6 to 12 Years)


1. The work of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget point to which area as
central in psychological development during middle childhood?
a. intellectual development
b. parental identification
c. formation of a personal identity
d. development of a sense of trust
Conceptual, p. 264, A

2. From an evolutionary perspective, how might group cooperation
contribute to species survival?
a. It is part of the mating ritual.
b. It improves the group's ability to track and hunt for food.
c. It fosters more competition among the males for mating privileges.
d. It allows more offspring to be produced.
Conceptual, p. 264, B

3. How is attachment formation in infancy related to friendship
a. Children who are securely attached do not need friends.
b. Children who are anxiously attached make friends readily.
c. Children who are securely attached are more popular and more
comfortable in social interactions.
d. Children who are securely attached look for one best friend with whom
to share their feelings.
Conceptual, p. 265, C

4. Sally's mother used power-assertive discipline techniques, such as
yelling and spanking when she was young and continues to do so. Today,
Sally is 8. You can expect her relationships with her peers to be
characterized by _______________________.
a. aggressive and controlling behaviors during conflicts
b. avoiding conflict at all costs
c. cooperation and mutuality
d. hostility, warmth, and honesty
Conceptual, p. 266, A

5. Which parental discipline technique is most likely to interfere with
a child's friendship formation?
a. power assertion
b. love withdrawal
c. induction
d. synchrony
Conceptual, p. 266, A

6. One cognitive benefit of active involvement in the peer group is
a. increased egocentrism
b. increased perspective-taking skills
c. increased emotional control
d. increased hopefulness
Conceptual, p. 266, B

7. Children who are aware of the variety of perspectives that are
present in the social situation are likely to be __________.
a. exposed to harsh discipline by parents
b. positively evaluated by their age-mates
c. more positively evaluated by their teachers than by their peers
d. friendly with rejected and withdrawn children
Conceptual, pp. 266-267, B

8. Which of the following happens to a rejected child in the process of
social skill development?
a. The child becomes closer to siblings and extended family members.
b. The child comes to expect negative behaviors from others.
c. The child has as many opportunities as accepted children to develop
social-relations skills.
d. The child selects an activity such as sports or drama in order to
gain peer acceptance.
Conceptual, p. 267, B

9. In middle childhood, children are aware of social norms for peer
acceptance. This results in greater pressures toward
a. isolation
b. altruism
c. conformity
d. egocentrism
Conceptual, p. 267, C

10. Why are "best friend" relationships important in middle childhood?
a. They provide a model for relationships with authority figures.
b. They protect children from the peer group.
c. They rarely break-up.
d. They provide a context for working on relationships in which both
members have equal power, status, and access to resources.
Conceptual, p. 267, D

11. What is the difference between peer acceptance and having a "best
friend" relationship?
a. Peer acceptance requires more conformity than best friend
b. Peer acceptance allows more openness and self-disclosure than a best
friend relationship.
c. Once established, peer acceptance can never be lost whereas best
friends can break up.
d. Peer acceptance is more important to a sense of well being than
having a close friend.
Conceptual, p. 267, A, www

12. How does the school environment affect close friendships?
a. Teachers decide which children will become close friends.
b. The school curriculum emphasizes the importance of having close
c. Close friendships are more stable in schools that keep children in
the same classroom groups from grade to grade.
d. Schools that contextualize learning promote the formation of more
stable best friend relationships.
Conceptual, p. 267, C

13. Which of the following increases a child's sense of loneliness?
a. being outgoing and sociable
b. being a target of peer rejection
c. being a bully
d. being academically competent
Factual, pp. 267-268, B

14. Which of the following is a characteristic of children who have
strong feelings of loneliness?
a. They work hard to improve their social skills.
b. They view themselves as socially incompetent.
c. They rarely spend time alone.
d. Many other children like them and want to be with them.
Conceptual, p. 268, B

15. Some children who are rejected tend to be disruptive and aggressive;
others tend to be socially withdrawn. Which of the following
statements is more characteristic of the aggressive/disruptive
children than the socially withdrawn group?
a. They tend

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